european heat wave ielts reading passage answers ieltsxpress

European Heat Wave IELTS Reading Passage

European Heat Wave IELTS Reading Passage with Answers

READING PASSAGE 2

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-27 which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.

European Heat Wave

A
IT WAS the summer, scientists now realise, when felt. We knew that summer 2003 was remarkable; global warming, at last, made itself unmistakably Britain experienced its record high temperature and continental Europe saw forest fires raging out of control, great rivers drying of a trickle and thousands of heat-related deaths. But just how remarkable is only now becoming clean.

B
The three months of June, July and August were the warmest ever recorded in western and central Europe, with record national highs in Portugal, Germany and Switzerland as well as Britain. And they were the warmest by a very long way Over a great rectangular block of the earth stretching from west of Paris to northern Italy, taking in Switzerland and southern Germany, the average temperature for the summer months was 3.78°C above the long-term norm, said the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) of the University of East Anglia in Norwich, which is one of the world’s leading institutions for the monitoring and analysis of temperature records.

C
That excess might not seem a lot until you are aware of the context – but then you realise it is enormous. There is nothing like this in previous data, anywhere. It is considered so exceptional that Professor Phil Jones, the CRU’s director, is prepared to say openly – in a way few scientists have done before – that the 2003 extreme may be directly attributed, not to natural climate variability, but to global warming caused by human actions.

D
Meteorologists have hitherto contented themselves with the formula that recent high temperatures are consistent with predictions of climate. For the great block of the map – that stretching between 35-50N and 0-20E – the CRU has reliable temperature records dating back to 1781. Using as a baseline the average summer temperature recorded between 1961 and 1990, departures from the temperature norm, or ‘anomalies’: over the area as a whole can easily be plotted. As the graph shows, such as the variability of our climate that over the past 200 years, there have been at least half a dozen anomalies, in terms of excess temperature – the peaks on the graph denoting very hot years – approaching, or even exceeding, 20°C. But there has been nothing remotely like 2003 when the anomaly is nearly four degrees.

E
“This is quite remarkable,” Professor Jones told The Independent. “It’s very unusual in a statistical sense. If this series had a normal statistical distribution, you wouldn’t get this number. There turn period “how often it could be expected to recur” would be something like one in a thou-sand years. If we look at an excess above the average of nearly four degrees, then perhaps nearly three degrees of that is natural variability, because we’ve seen that in past summers. But the final degree of it is likely to be due to global warming, caused by human actions.

F
The summer of 2003 has, in a sense, been one that climate scientists have long been expecting. Until now, the warming has been manifesting itself mainly in winters that have been less cold than in summers that have been much hotter. Last week, the United Nations predicted that winters were warming so quickly that winter sports would die out in Europe’s lower-level ski resorts. But sooner or later the unprecedentedly hot summer was bound to come, and this year it did.

G
One of the most dramatic features of the summer was the hot nights, especially in the first half of August. In Paris, the temperature never dropped below 230°C (73.40°F) at all between 7 and 14 August, and the city recorded its warmest-ever night on 11-12 August, when the mercury did not drop below 25.50°C (77.90°F). Germany recorded its warmest-ever night at Weinbiet in the Rhine valley with the lowest figure of 27.60°C (80.60°F) on 13 August, and similar record-breaking night-time temperatures were recorded in Switzerland and Italy.

H
The 15,000 excess deaths in France during August, compared with previous years, have been related to the high night-time temperatures. The number gradually increased during the first 12 days of the month, peaking at about 2,000 per day on the night of 12-13 August, the fell off dramatically after 14 August when the minimum temperatures fell by about 50C. The elderly were most affected, with a 70 per cent increase in mortality rate in those aged 75-94.

I
For Britain, the year as a whole is likely to be the warmest ever recorded, but despite the high-temperature record on 10 August, the summer itself – defined as the June, July and August period – still comes behind 1976 and 1955, when there were long periods of intense heat. At the moment, the year is on course to be the third-hottest ever in the global temperature record, which goes back to 1856, behind 1988 and 2002 but when all the records for October, November and December are collated, it might move into second place, Professor Jones said. The 10 hottest years in the record have all now occurred since 1990. Professor Jones is in no doubt about the astonishing nature of the European summer of 2003. “The temperatures recorded were out of all proportion to the previous record,” he said. “It was the warmest summer in the past 500 years and probably way beyond what it was enormously exceptional.”

J
His colleagues at the University of East Anglia’s Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research are now planning a special study of it. “It was a summer that has not: been experienced before, either in terms of the temperature extremes that were reached, or the range and diversity of the impacts of the extreme heat,” said the centre’s executive director, Professor Mike Hulme. “It will certainly have left its mark on a number of countries, as to how they think and plan for climate change in the future, much as the 2000 floods have revolutionised the way the Government is thinking about flooding in the UK. “The 2003 heatwave will have similar repercussions across Europe.”

Questions 14-19
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?
In boxes 14-19 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement is true
FALSE if the statement is false
NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage

14 The average summer temperature in 2003 is approximately four degrees higher than that of the past.
15 Jones believes the temperature statistic is within the normal range.
16 The human factor is one of the reasons that caused the hot summer.
17 In a large city, people usually measure temperature twice a day.
18 Global warming has an obvious effect of warmer winter instead of hotter summer before 2003.
19 New ski resorts are to be built on a high-altitude spot.

Questions 20-21
Answer the questions below using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR NUMBERS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 20-21 on your answer sheet.

20 What are the two hottest years in Britain besides 2003?
21 What will affect UK government policies besides climate change according to Hulme?

Questions 22-26
Complete the summary below using NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage.
Write your answers in boxes 22-26 on your answer sheet

In the summer of 2003, thousands of extra death occurred in the country of 22_________ Moreover, world-widely, the third record of hottest summer date from 23_________ after the year of 24_________ According to Jones, all the 10 hottest years happened from 25_________ However, the summer of 2003 was at the peak of the previous 26_________ years, perhaps even more.

Question 27
Choose the correct letter A, B, C or D
Write your answer in box 27 on your answer sheet.

27 Which one can be best served as the title of this passage in the following options?

A Global Warming effect
B Global Warming in Europe
C The Effects of hot temperature
D Hottest summer in Europe


European Heat Wave IELTS Reading Passage Answers

14. TRUE

15.FALSE

16. TRUE

17. NOT GIVEN

18. TRUE

19. NOT GIVEN

20. 1976 and 1995

21. 2000 floods

22. France

23. 1856

24. 1998 and 2002

25. 1990

26. 500

27. D


European Heat Wave IELTS Reading Answers Explanation


Question 14. The average summer temperature in 2003 is approximately four degrees higher than that of the past
Answer: True

Supporting Sentence: As the graph shows, such as the variability of our climate that over the past 200 years, there have been at least half a dozen anomalies, in terms of excess temperature – the peaks on the graph denoting very hot years – approaching, or even exceeding, 20 oC. But there has been nothing remotely like 2003 when the anomaly is nearly four degrees.
Keywords: Four degrees, 2003, excess temperature
Keyword location: Paragraph D.
Explanation: The supporting sentence states that in the past there have been instances of rising temperatures but the increased temperature as recorded in 2003 has been the greatest, being close to 4 degrees more than normal. Hence the given statement in the question is true.


Question 15. Jones believes the temperature statistic is within the normal range.
Answer: False

Supporting Sentence: “This is quite remarkable,” Professor Jones told The Independent. “It’s very unusual in a statistical sense. If his series had a normal statistical distribution, you wouldn’t get this number. IELTSXpress There turn period “how often it could be expected to recur” would be something like one in a thousand years. Hence the given statement in the question is false.
Keywords: statistical distribution.
Keyword location: Paragraph E.
Explanation: As clearly said by professor Jones at the beginning of the paragraph, considering statistics, the temperature change (the temperature rise) is not something you would see quite frequently. He further states that the frequency of such a phenomenon happening would be once in a thousand years.


Question 16. The human factor is one of the reasons that caused the hot summer
Answer: True.

Supporting Sentence: If we look at an excess above the average of nearly four degrees, then perhaps nearly three degrees of that is natural variability, because we’ve seen that in past summers. But the final degree of it is likely to be due to global warming, caused by human actions.
Keywords: global warming, human actions, natural variability
Keyword location: Paragraph E
Explanation: As evident from the later part of paragraph E, Professor Jones states that the variation in temperature up to three degrees could be due to natural reasons, but the fact the temperature has further gone up by one degree proves that human actions are behind it.


Question 17. In a large city, people usually measure temperature twice a day.
Answer: Not given.

Explanation: The answer to this question is not mentioned in the passage.


Question 18. Global warming has an obvious effect of warmer winter instead of hotter summer before 2003.
Answer: True

Supporting Sentence: The summer of 2003 has, in a sense, been one that climate scientists have long been expecting. Until now, the warming has been manifesting itself mainly in winters that have been less cold than in summers that have been much hotter.
Keywords: Summer of 2003, climate scientists, winters
Keyword location: Paragraph F
Explanation: As we could make out from the beginning of the paragraph, before 2003, global warming was mainly responsible for making the winters warmer more than making the summers hotter. Hence the statement in the given question is true.


Question 19. New ski resorts are to be built on a high-altitude spot.
Answer: Not given.

Explanation: The answer to this question is not mentioned in the passage.


Question 20. What are the two hottest years in Britain besides 2003?
Answer: 1976 and 1955. (In the answer column it is mentioned as 1995 but asper the referenced passage, it is 1955)

Supporting Sentence: For Britain, the year as a whole is likely to be the warmest ever recorded, but despite the high-temperature record on 10 August, the summer itself – defined as the June, July and August period – still comes behind 1976 and 1955, when there were long periods of intense heat.
Keywords: High temperature, August,1976,1955
Keyword location: Paragraph I, first lines.
Explanation: The supporting sentence clearly states that though in 2003 the temperature was very high throughout Europe, Britain had experienced higher temperatures in the years 1976 and 1955.


Question 21. What will affect UK government policies besides climate change according to Hulme?
Answer: 2000 floods.

Supporting Sentence: “It will certainly have left its mark on a number of countries, as to how they think and plan for climate change in the future, much as the 2000 floods have revolutionised the way the Government is thinking about flooding in the UK. “The 2003 heatwave will have similar repercussions across Europe.”
Keywords: climate change, 2000 floods,2003 heatwave, flooding in the UK
Keyword location: Paragraph J
Explanation: As quoted in the supporting sentence, Professor Mike Hulme stated that the heatwave of 2003 will certainly make Europe think about how to tackle climate change in the future, just like the UK floods of 2000 made a massive change in the government’s mindset and action regarding floods.


Question 22.
Answer: France.

Supporting Sentence: The 15,000 excess deaths in France during August, compared with previous years, have been related to the high night-time temperatures
Keywords: 15,000 deaths, high night-time temperatures, France.
Keyword location: Paragraph H
Explanation: As we can make out from the supporting sentence, it is France where thousands of deaths occurred due to high night-time temperatures.


Question 23.
Answer: 1856.

Supporting Sentence: At the moment, the year is on course to be the third-hottest ever in the global temperature record, which goes back to 1856, behind 1988 and 2002…
Keywords: global temperature, 1856, 1988, 2002
Keyword location: Paragraph I
Explanation: As evident from the supporting sentence, the third hottest year the world has witnessed is 1856.


Question 24.
Answer: 1998 and 2002

Supporting Sentence: At the moment, the year is on course to be the third-hottest ever in the global temperature record, which goes back to 1856, behind 1988 and 2002…
Keywords: global temperature, 1988,2002 ieltsxpress
Keyword location: Paragraph I
Explanation: As evident from the supporting sentence, 1988 and 2002 in that order are the hottest years experienced by the world, which makes 1856 the third hottest year ever.


Question 25.
Answer: 1990

Supporting Sentence: …Professor Jones said. The 10 hottest years in the record have all now occurred since 1990.
Keywords: Hottest years, 1990
Keyword location: Paragraph I
Explanation: As stated in the supporting sentence, Professor Jones said that the top 10 hottest years had started from the year 1990.


Question 26.
Answer: 500

Supporting Sentence: Professor Jones is in no doubt about the astonishing nature of the European summer of 2003. “The temperatures recorded were out of all proportion to the previous record,” he said. “It was the warmest summer in the past 500 years and probably way beyond what it was enormously exceptional.”
Keywords: summer of 2003, warmest summer, 500 years
Keyword location: Paragraph I
Explanation: As said by professor Jones, in the past 500 years or so, there was no summer as warm as the summer of 2003.


Question 27
Answer: D

Supporting Sentence: The whole passage talks about European Summer.
Keyword: European Summer
Keyword location: Whole passage
Explanation: The entire passage talks about the European summer of 2003, how it has been one of the hottest summers ever, mentioning various European countries where the heatwave was experienced. Hence Option D is the perfect title for the passage.


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