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IELTS Academic Reading Test 14 Reiki Sculpture Genealogy ielts reading ieltsxpress

Reiki, Sculpture, Genealogy IELTS Academic Reading Test 14

Reiki, Sculpture, Genealogy | IELTS Academic Reading Test 14 with Answers

Reading Passage 1

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on the Reading Passage below.

Reiki

A The spiritual practice of Reiki was first introduced in the early 20th century in Japan and continues to be used by its followers today with the intention of treating physical, emotional and mental imbalances and consequent ill-health. The principles of Reiki involve techniques employed by practitioners they say will channel healing energy through the subject’s body, and advocates hold that these techniques can also be used for self-healing. The name of the practice itself stems from two Japanese characters, pronounced ‘rei’ which translates to ‘unseen’ or ‘spiritual’ and ‘ki’ meaning ‘life force’ or ‘energy’.

B According to Reiki philosophy, only by undergoing an attunement process performed by a Reiki Master is an individual able to access, then channel this positive energy within, this ability once established is considered to be enduring. Once attuned, it is said that an individual has the ability to allow energy to flow to weak or diseased areas of the body, activating a natural healing process. Reiki energy is considered to be ‘intelligent energy’ in that it automatically flows to such areas; for this reason, practitioners believe that diagnosis of a specific problem is unnecessary beforehand and that the practice can be used as preventative medicine and encourage healing prior to the onset of tangible symptoms. Since healing initiated by Reiki treatment is entirely natural, many practitioners are confident that it can be used alongside any other type of treatment without adverse effect; however, others recommend that since the patient may undergo significant internal improvement for certain ailments – diabetes, for example – careful monitoring is required since such improvements may establish a need for an alteration in medication requirements.

C A ‘whole body’ Reiki treatment session typically lasts between 90 minutes. The subject is required to lie down – often on a treatment table – clothed in comfortable and loose fitting attire. Treatment may involve the practitioner placing their hands on the recipient in a variety of positions; however, some therapists take a non-touching approach, holding their hands a few centimeters away from the body. Hands are usually held in one position for up to 5 minutes before moving on to the next part of the body; between 12 and 20 hand positions are generally used. Those who have undergone a Reiki treatment session often state that they experienced a pleasant warmness in the area of focus and a feeling of contentment and relaxation throughout the session.

D The healing energy is said to originate in the universe itself and is not the passing of personal energy from practitioner to patient; it is therefore thought to be inexhaustible and the personal well-being of the practitioner uncompromised. While some masters and teachers hold that subjects must be receptive to the concept in order for energy to flow, others believe that the attitude of the patient is of no consequence and that benefits will follow regardless; for this reason, those following the latter school of thought say that since Reiki requires no conscious belief it can also benefit the well-being of animals and plant life.

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E Controversy surrounds the practice of Reiki, some in opposition as they say that Reiki may offer only a perceived improvement in health and therefore only a ‘placebo’ effect. Whilst the practice of Reiki itself is not necessarily considered potentially harmful, some medical practitioners are concerned that its benefits may be overestimated by patients and that, as a result, they may ignore or abandon conventional treatments. Others argue against the reliability of Reiki due to the lack of regulation of practitioners, holding that patients may be left vulnerable to illegitimate therapists who lack knowledge and skill. While Reiki is not connected to any particular religious doctrine, some religious leaders oppose the practice for spiritual reasons; however, others hold that the meditative principles involved in treatment have enhanced their own ability to explore and embrace their own particular religion.

F Limited scientific studies in the authenticity of Reiki have been conducted. During research conducted by the Institute of Neurological Studies at South Glasgow University Hospital it was observed that there was a significant decrease in heart rate and blood pressure amongst subjects receiving 30 minutes of Reiki treatment as opposed to a group receiving placebo treatment of 30 minutes rest. Since the test group consisted of a small number of subjects just 45 – the research recommendations concluded a requirement for further studies. A similarly small preliminary study into the potential effects of Reiki on patients suffering mild dementia, conducted in the USA, tentatively suggested that treatment had a positive effect on the subjects’ memory abilities; however, research limitations included insufficient analysis of potential placebo effects.

G Other studies have also attempted to determine correlation between Reiki treatment and improvement in cancer and stroke patients. Whilst investigations into the first condition indicated a seemingly positive effect on degrees of fatigue, pain and stress experienced by sufferers, the second project failed to reveal a link between treatment and improvement in the subjects’ condition and rehabilitation. Theories have been put forward that the benefits of energy treatments such as Reiki may be scientifically attributed to the effect of electromagnetic fields; however, the majority researchers agree that more extensive investigation is required.

Questions 1-3
Choose THREE letters A-H.
Write your answers next to 1- 3 on your answer sheet.

NB. Your answers may be given in any order

Which THREE of the following statements are true of Reiki?

A Principles for self-healing differ from those used on others.
B Attunement is said to have a permanent effect on the recipient.
C Its preventative properties are more significant than cure.
D There are differences in opinion regarding its use with other therapies.
E The treatment typically involves contact between the therapist and the patient.
F The recipient’s own energy is the key to the philosophy.
G Some therapists believe a pessimistic approach affects results.
H It is only practised on human subjects.

Questions 4-9
Reading Passage 1 has seven paragraphs A-G.
Which paragraph contains the following information? You can use each paragraph more than once.

4 A scientific explanation of why Reiki may have positive effects.
5 An overview of the practicalities of how Reiki is performed.
6 The pre-requisite required to experience Reiki benefits.
7 When a patient’s faith and expectations cause concern.
8 The immediate effects that can be experienced by recipients.
9 The safety of conducting therapy for practitioners.

Questions 10-13
According to the information in Reading Passage 1,
Classify the following research findings into the benefits of Reiki as relating to

A The Institute of Neurological Studies
B Research conducted in the USA
C Cancer research
D Stroke research

Write the correct letter A, B, C or D in boxes 10-13 your answer sheet

10 The groups’ comfort and quality of life appeared to improve.
11 No apparent links were identified.
12 Results were compared to a control group who did not receive Reiki treatment.
13 Recollection ability seemed to be enhanced.


Reading Passage 2

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-27, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.

Sculpture

A. Sculpture, the practice of creating a three-dimensional object for artistic and aesthetic purposes, dates back as far as prehistoric times. Since objects created are intended to be enduring, traditionally sculptures have been forged from durable materials such as bronze, stone, marble, and jade; however, some branches of the art also specialize in creating figurines of a more ephemeral nature, ice sculpture, for example. The practice of sculpting in many countries has traditionally been associated with religious philosophy; for example, in Asia, many famous sculptures are related to Hinduism or Buddhism.

B. In Africa, perhaps more than any other region in the world, three-dimensional artwork is favoured and given more emphasis than two-dimensional paintings. Whilst some experts hold that the art of sculpture in the continent dates back to the Nok civilization of Nigeria in 500 BC, this is disputed due to evidence of the art’s existence in Pharaonic Africa. To the expert eye, African art is clearly defined by the region from which it is from and easily identifiable from the differences in a technique used and material from which it is made. Figurines from the West African region are sculpted in two distinctly different forms. The first is characterized by angular forms and features with elongated bodies, such sculptures being traditionally used in religious rituals. Conversely, the traditional wood statues of the Mande speaking culture possess cylindrical arms and legs with broad, flat surfaces. Metal sculptures that hail from the eastern regions of West Africa are heralded by many as amongst the most superior art forms ever crafted.

C. Central African sculpture may be a little more difficult to identify for the novice observer as a wider variety of materials may be used, ranging from wood to ivory, stone or metal. However, despite tills, the distinct style of usage of smooth lines and circular forms still helps to define the origin of such works. In both Eastern and Southern Africa, typically, art depicts a mixture of human and animal features. Art from the former region Is usually created in the form of a pole carved in human shape and topped with a human or animal image which has a strong connection with the death, burial, and the spiritual world. Such creations are less recognized as art in the traditional sense than those from other parts of Africa. In Southern Africa, the human/animal hybrid representations are fashioned from clay, the oldest known examples dating back to from between 400 and 600 A.D.

D. Although these distinct and defining regional differences in artistic expression exist, there are also universal similarities that define African art as a whole. Primarily a common characteristic is that focus is predominantly on the representation of the human form. A second common trait of African art is that it is often inspired by a ceremonial or performance-related purpose; the meaning behind the art and its purpose often intended to be interpreted in a different way depending on an individual’s age, gender or even social and educational status.

E. Throughout the African continent, artworks tend to be more abstract in nature than intending to present a realistic and naturalistic portrayal of the subject in question. Artists such as Picasso, Van Gogh and Gauguin are said to have been influenced and inspired by African art. Its ability to stimulate emotional reaction and imagination generated a great deal of interest from western artists at the beginning of the 20th century. As a result, new European works began to emerge which were of a more abstract nature than previously conceived. More intellectually and emotionally stimulating art was born than had been seen before in a culture that had traditionally faithfully represented and depicted the true and exact form of its subjects.

F. The ‘Modernism’ movement of the 20th century embraced innovation in literature and art, its devotees wishing to move beyond realism in artistic expression. The sculptor Henry Spencer Moore, born in 1898 in Yorkshire, was one of the key players involved in introducing and developing his own particular style of modernism to the British art world. He is best known for his abstract bronze sculptures of the human form, many critics drawing parallels between the undulating landscapes and hills of his home county Yorkshire and the shapes and lines of his sculptures.

G. By the 1950s, Moore’s work was increasingly in demand and he began to secure high-profile commissions including artwork for the UNESCO building in Paris. By the end of Moore’s career, due to his popularity and the scale of the projects he undertook, the sculptor was extremely affluent; however, a huge proportion of his wealth was donated to the Henry Moore Foundation established with the aim of supporting education and promotion of the arts. The foundation is a registered charity and has continued to offer to fund a wide range of projects including grants to arts institutions and bursaries and fellowships for students and artists since Moore’s death in 1986.

Questions 14-17
Complete the summary
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in the blank spaces next to 14-17 on your answer sheet.

In Africa, sculpture is more predominant and more highly 14______________ than canvas art, for example. In Asia, many prestigious works are connected to 15______________ values. Sculpture is an ancient art in which figurines are created from materials which are, in the main, 16_____________ to ensure longevity of the art form; however, though more 17____________, materials such as ice are used in certain spheres.

Questions 18-22
Complete the table.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 18-22 on your answer sheet.

Regional African Art

Region Style Additional Information
Eastern Africa Subjects similar to the 18_____________ area of the country. Less sought-after than other styles of African art.
Southern Africa Artwork representing human & animal form Made from 19________________
Western Africa Style 1 Sharp lines, long bodies Conventionally made for the purpose of 20________________
Style 2 Cylindrical, broad and flat lines crafted from 21_______________ Made by Mande speakers
Central Africa Smooth lines & circular forms Often more difficult to recognise due to the diversity of 22_____________used.

Questions 23-27
Answer the questions below using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 23-27 on your answer sheet.

23 Verification of art in which civilization sheds doubt on the theory that African art dates back to the Nok period?
24 What material is used for the African sculptures many consider to be the best?
25 What ceremonial event are the creations from Eastern Africa connected with?
26 Due to African influence, what did Western art become that allowed it to be more intellectually and emotionally stimulating?
27 What did Moore most often depict which brought him the greatest recognition?


Reading Passage 3

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 28 – 40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.

Genealogy

A. Genealogy, the study of tracing family connections and relationships through history – so building a cohesive family tree, has become an increasingly popular hobby from non-specialist enthusiasts over recent decades. The introduction of the Internet has, in many ways, spurred interest levels since historical information has been made far more accessible than previously. Experts warn, however, that sources obtained from the internet must be considered with caution as they may often contain inaccuracies, often advising novice genealogists to join a family history society where they are able to learn useful skills from experienced researchers.

B. Originally, prior to developing a more mainstream following, the practice of genealogy focused on establishing the ancestral links of rulers and noblemen often with the purpose of disputing or confirming the legitimacy of inherited rights to wealth or position. More recently, genealogists are often interested in not only where and when previous generations of families lived but also details of their lifestyle and motivations, interpreting the effects of the law, political restrictions, immigration and the social conditions on an individual’s or family’s behaviour at the given time. Genealogy searches may also result in the location of living relatives and consequently family reunions, in some cases helping to reunite family members who had been separated in the past due to fostering/adoption, migration or war.

C. In Australia, there has been a great deal of interest of late, from families wishing to trace their links to the early settlers. As a result of the loss of the American colonies in the 1700s, Britain was in need of an alternative destination for prisoners who could not be accommodated in the country’s overcrowded penal facilities. In 1787, the ‘First Fleet’ which consisted of a flotilla of ships carrying just over 1300 people (of which 753 were convicts or their children and the remainder marines, officers and their family members) left Britain’s shores for Australia. On January 26, 1788 – now celebrated as Australia Day – the fleet landed at Sydney Cove and the first steps to European settlement began.

D. Genealogy research has led to a shift in attitudes towards convict heritage amongst contemporary Australian society, as family members have been able to establish that their ancestors were, in fact, not hardened and dangerous criminals, but had, in most cases, been harshly punished for minor crimes inspired by desperation and dire economic circumstances. So dramatic has the shift in attitudes been that having family connections to passengers on the ‘First Fleet’ is considered nothing less than prestigious. Convicts Margaret Dawson and Elizabeth Thakery were amongst the first European women to ever set foot on Australian soil. Details about the former, whose initial death sentence passed for stealing clothes from her employer was commuted to deportation, and the latter expelled for stealing handkerchiefs along with others of similar fate are now available on the internet for eager descendants to track.

E. Although many of the deported convicts were forbidden to return to Britain, others such as Dawson, were, in theory, expelled for a given term. In reality, however, the costs of attempting to return to the mother country were well beyond the means of the majority. Genealogists now attribute the successful early development of Australia to such ex-convicts who decided to contribute fully to society once their sentence had been served. Many rewards were available to prisoners who displayed exemplary behaviour, including land grants of 30 acres or more, tools for developing and farming the land and access to convict labour. Genealogy studies also show that many former prisoners went on to hold powerful positions in the newly forming Australia society, examples being Francis Greenway – a British architect expelled on conviction of fraud – who went on to design many of Sydney’s most prominent colonial buildings, and Alexander Munro, transported after stealing cheese at the age of 15, who would later build Australia’s first gas works and hold the position of Town Mayor.

F. In North America, the Mormon Church, headquartered in Salt Lake City, Utah, holds two major genealogical databases, the International Genealogical Index and the Ancestral File, which contain records of hundreds of million individuals who lived between 1500 and 1900 in the United States, Canada, and Europe. Resources available to genealogy enthusiasts include the Salt Lake City-based Family History Library and more than 4000 branches where microfilms and microfiches can be rented for research and the newer Family Search internet site which provides open access to numerous databases and research sources. Such data-sharing practices are central and crucial to genealogical research and the internet has proven to be a major tool in facilitating ease of transfer of information in formats suitable for use in forums and via email. The global level of interest in and demand for such information has proven so intense, that traffic load on the release of sources such as Family Search and the British Census for 1901 led to a temporary collapse of the host servers.

G. Experts advise that the reliability of sources used for genealogical research should be evaluated in light of four factors that may influence their accuracy, these being the knowledge of the informant, the bias and mental state of the informant, the passage of time and potential for a compilation error. First, genealogists should consider who the information was provided by and what he or she could be ascertained to have known. For example, a census record alone is considered unreliable as no named source for the information is likely to be found. A death certificate signed by an identified doctor, however, can be accepted as more reliable. In the case of bias or mental state, researchers are advised to consider that even when information is given by what could be considered a reliable source, that there may have been a motivation to be untruthful – continuing to claim a government benefit or avoidance of taxation, for example.

H. Generally, data recorded at the same time or close to the event being researched is considered to be more reliable than records written at a later point in time, as – while individuals may intend to give a true representation of events – factual information may be misrepresented due to lapses in memory and forgotten details. Finally, sources may be classified as either original or derivative. The latter refers to photocopies, transcriptions, abstracts, translations, extractions, and compilations and has more room for error due to possible misinterpretations, typing errors or loss of additional and crucial parts of the original documentation.

Questions 28-32
Reading Passage 3 has eight paragraphs A-H.
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs B and D-G from the list of headings below.
Write the correct number i to ix in boxes 28 – 32 on your answer sheet.

List of Headings

An Embarrassing Heritage
Assessing Validity
Diversity of Application
Interpretation Errors
Past Usage
Useful Sources
Australasian Importance
Changing Viewpoints
Significant Roles

Example: Paragraph C; Answer: vii

28 Paragraph B
29 Paragraph D
30 Paragraph E
31 Paragraph F
32 Paragraph G

Questions 33-36
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3?
In boxes 33 -36 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE, if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE, if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN, if there is no information on this

33 Early applications of genealogy focused on behaviour, movement, and settlement of populations.
34 The punishment of deportation was reserved for those who posed a serious threat to British society.
35 Some ex-convicts chose to stay in Australia due to the opportunities it presented.
36 Overwhelming interest in obtaining genealogical information has led to technological difficulties.

Questions 37-40
Choose the correct letter A, B, C or D
Write your answers next to 37-40 on your answer sheet.

37 Why has recreational genealogy become more popular?

A Because it is now a fashionable hobby.
B Because more people wish to trace missing relatives.
C Because there are fewer political barriers.
D Because it is no longer requires so much effort.

38 Whose original sentence for breaking the law was reduced?

A Francis Greenway.
B Margaret Dawson.
C Alexander Munro.
D Elizabeth Thackery.

39 What is fundamental to genealogical research?

A Original records.
B Electronic transfer.
C The pooling of information.
D The IG Index.

40 Why does census information need to be approached with caution?

A Because it cannot easily be attributed to a particular individual.
B Because it is often not validated by a physician.
C Because administration practices in the past were unreliable.
D Because informants may not have been truthful due to financial motivations.


IELTS Academic Reading Practice Test 14 Answers

Reiki IELTS Reading Answers

1-2-3 B, D or G IN ANY ORDER
4. G
5. C
6. B
7. E
8. C
9. D
10. C
11. D
12. A
13. B

Sculpture IELTS Reading Answers

14. Favoured
15. Religious
16. Durable
17. Ephemeral
18. Southern
19. Clay
20. Religious rituals
21. Wood
22. Materials
23. Pharaonic Africa
24. Metal
25. Burial
26. Abstract
27. the human form

Genealogy IELTS Reading Answers

28. iii – Diversity of Application
29. viii – Changing Viewpoints
30. ix – Significant Roles
31. vi – Useful Sources
32. ii – Assessing Validity
33. False
34. False
35. Not Given
36. True
37. D
38. B
39. C
40. A


IELTS Academic Reading Practice Test 14 Answers Explanation


Reiki IELTS Reading Answers

Question 1:

Answer: B

Supporting Sentence: According to Reiki philosophy, only by undergoing an attunement process performed by a Reiki Master is an individual able to access, then channel this positive energy within, this ability once established is considered to be enduring.
Keyword: Attunement, permanent, effect, recipient
Keyword Location: Paragraph B, lines 1-10
Explanation: In paragraph B lines 1-3 says, According to Reiki philosophy, only by undergoing an attunement process performed by a Reiki Master is an individual able to access, then channel this positive energy within, this ability once established is considered to be enduring.
According to these lines, Attunement is said to have a permanent effect on the recipient.


Question 2:

Answer: D

Supporting Sentence: Since healing initiated by Reiki treatment is entirely natural, many practitioners are confident that it can be used alongside any other type of treatment without adverse effect; however, others recommend that since the patient may undergo significant internal improvement for certain ailments – diabetes, for example – careful monitoring is required since such improvements may establish a need for an alteration in medication requirements.
Keyword: differences, opinion, other, therapies
Keyword Location: Paragraph B, Lines 8-12
Explanation: In lines 8-12 of paragraph B, it is said that Reiki treatment is entirely natural, But many practitioners have other opinions too. So, the sentence – ” There are differences in opinion regarding its use with other therapies” is Correct.


Question 3:

Answer: G

Supporting Sentence: While some masters and teachers hold that subjects must be receptive to the concept for energy to flow,
Keyword: therapists, believe, pessimistic, approach effects, results.
Keyword Location: Paragraph D, Lines 3-4
Explanation: In lines 3-4of paragraph B, it is stated that some masters and teachers hold that subjects must be receptive to the concept for energy to flow, So the sentence – “Some therapists believe a pessimistic approach affects results.” Is true.


4) A scientific explanation of why Reiki may have positive effects.

Answer: G

Supporting Sentence: Theories have been put forward that the benefits of energy treatments such as Reiki may be scientifically attributed to the effect of electromagnetic fields; however, the majority of researchers agree that more extensive investigation is required.
Keyword: Scientific, explanation, effects
Keyword Location: Paragraph G, Lines 3-4
Explanation: In lines 5-7 of paragraph G, it is given that Reiki is attributed to the effect of electromagnetic fields. So, the appropriate answer for this is G.


5) An overview of the practicalities of how Reiki is performed.

Answer: C

Supporting Sentence: Most of the paragraph refers to how Reiki is performed (the practicalities). ‘The subject is required to lie down – often on a treatment table – clothed in comfortable and loose-fitting attire. Treatment may involve the practitioner placing their hands on the recipient in a variety of positions; however, some therapists take a non-touching approach, holding their hands a few centimetres away from the body. Hands are usually held in one position for up to 5 minutes before moving on to the next part of the body; between 12 and 20 hand positions are generally used.’
Keyword: Practicalities, Performed
Keyword Location: Paragraph C, Lines 2-5
Explanation: In paragraph C, It is written about the practicalities of Reiki and how it is Performed and treated. So, the appropriate answer for this is C.


6) The prerequisite required to experience Reiki benefits.

Answer: B

Supporting Sentence: According to Reiki philosophy, only by undergoing an attunement process performed by a Reiki Master is an individual able to access, then channel this positive energy within, this ability once established is considered to be enduring. Once attuned, it is said that an individual can allow energy to flow to weak or diseased areas of the body, activating a natural healing process.
Keyword: Prerequisite, Experience, Benefits
Keyword Location: Paragraph B, Lines 1-4
Explanation: In lines 1-4 of paragraph B, it is said that the Attunement process is a Prerequisite to activate natural healing. So, the appropriate answer for this is B.


7) When a patient’s faith and expectations cause concern.

Answer: E

Supporting Sentence: ‘some medical practitioners are concerned that its benefits may be overestimated by patients and that, as a result, they may ignore or abandon conventional treatments.’
Keywords: Patients, Faith, Expectations, Cause, Concern ieltsxpress
Keyword Location: Paragraph E, Lines 3-5
Explanation: In lines 3-5 of paragraph E, it is said that Patients may ignore or Abandon Conventional Treatment after seeing the benefits of Reiki. That is the Point of Concern. So the appropriate answer for this is E.


8) The immediate effects that can be experienced by recipients.

Answer: C

Supporting Sentence: Those who have undergone a Reiki treatment session often state that they experienced a pleasant warmness in the area of focus and a feeling of contentment and relaxation throughout the session.’
Keyword: effects, Experienced, recipients
Keyword Location: Paragraph C, Lines 7-8
Explanation: In lines 7-8 of paragraph C, it is said about the Effects after Reiki Treatment that is experienced by the Patients. They feel pleasant warmness in the area of focus and a feeling of Contentment and relaxation throughout the session. So the appropriate answer for this is C.


9) The safety of conducting therapy for practitioners.

Answer: D
Supporting Sentence: The healing energy is said to originate in the universe itself and is not the passing of personal energy from practitioner to the patient; it is therefore thought to be inexhaustible and the personal well-being of the practitioner uncompromised.’
Keyword: Safety, Therapy, Practitioners
Keyword Location Paragraph D, Lines 1-3
Explanation: In lines 1-3 of paragraph D, it is said about the Healing Energy that it originates itself and Not transferred from Practitioners to Patients. It is safe and good for Practitioners. So, the appropriate answer for this is D.


10) The groups’ comfort and quality of life appeared to improve.

Answer: C. Cancer Research

Supporting Sentence: Other studies have also attempted to determine the correlation between Reiki treatment and improvement in cancer and stroke patients. Whilst investigations into the first condition indicated a seemingly positive effect on degrees of fatigue, pain and stress experienced by sufferers.’
Keywords: Groups, Comfort, Life, Improve
Keyword Location: Paragraph G, Lines 1-4
Explanation: In lines 1-4 of paragraph G, it is stated that Reiki Treatment indicates a Positive Effect On the degree of Fatigue, Pain, and Stress in Cancer. So, the appropriate answer for this is C. Cancer.


11) No apparent links were identified.

Answer: D. Stroke

Supporting Sentence: Other studies have also attempted to determine the correlation between Reiki treatment and improvement in cancer and stroke patients. Whilst investigations into the first condition indicated a seemingly positive effect on degrees of fatigue, pain and stress experienced by sufferers, the second project failed to reveal a link between treatment and improvement in the subjects.’
Keyword: apparent, link, identified
Keyword Location: Paragraph G, Lines 1-4
Explanation: In lines 1-4 of paragraph G, It is stated that Reiki treatment failed to Reveal a link in Stroke Patients. So the appropriate answer for this is D. Stroke.


12) Results were compared to a control group who did not receive Reiki treatment.

Answer: A. The Institute of Neurological Studies

Supporting Sentence: During research conducted by the Institute of Neurological Studies at South Glasgow University Hospital, it was observed that there was a significant decrease in heart rate and blood pressure amongst subjects receiving 30 minutes of Reiki treatment as opposed to a group receiving placebo treatment of 30 minutes rest.
Keyword: Results, Compared, Control Group, Reiki, Treatment
Keyword Location: Paragraph F, Lines 2-4
Explanation: In lines 2-4 of paragraph F, it is given that two Groups were given two Different Treatments. Heart rate and Blood Pressure Decreased in People who were given Reiki Treatment. So the appropriate answer for this is A – The Institute of Neurological Studies.


13) Recollection ability seemed to be enhanced.

Answer: B – Research conducted in the USA

Supporting Sentence: A similarly small preliminary study into the potential effects of Reiki on patients suffering mild dementia, conducted in the USA, tentatively suggested that treatment had a positive effect on the subjects’ memory abilities; however, research limitations included insufficient analysis of potential placebo effects.
Keywords: Recollection, Ability, Enhanced
Keyword Location: Paragraph F, Lines 7-9
Explanation: In lines 7-9 of paragraph F, it is Stated in the Sentences that Memory abilities are enhanced in mild dementia Patients when treated with Reiki. So, the appropriate answer for this is B – Research conducted in the USA.


Sculpture IELTS Reading Answers Explanation


Question 14

Answer: Favoured
Supporting Answer: “In Africa, 3D Sculptures are preferred (Favoured) than 2D paintings. This 3D sculpture shows as the prime artworks.”
Keywords: Region, three-dimensional artwork, two-dimensional paintings.
Keyword Location: In paragraph B, lines 1-3
Explanation: In paragraph B lines 1-3 say, “In Africa, perhaps more than any other region in the world, three-dimensional artwork is favored and given more emphasis than two-dimensional paintings.”


Question 15

Answer: Religious
Supporting Answer: “Many sculptures are made to practice god. These traditional philosophy help to connect with religion.”
Keywords: religious philosophy.
Keyword Location: In paragraph A, lines 7-9
Explanation: In paragraph A, lines 7-9 say, “The practice of sculpting in many countries has traditionally been associated with religious philosophy.”


Question 16

Answer: Durable
Supporting Answer: “Material which is made up of metal, stone, marble are said to be long- lasting (Durable).”
Keywords: traditional sculpture.
Keyword Location: In paragraph A, lines 4-5
Explanation: In paragraph, A lines 4-5 says, “traditionally sculptures have been forged from durable materials such as bronze, stone, marble, and jade”
NOTE: Although ‘enduring’ has the same meaning, it is not the correct answer because in the passage this word refers to the sculptures, but the question was asking for a description of the materials used.


Question 17

Answer: Ephemeral
Supporting Answer: “Ephemeral means things that live for a short time and Ice sculpture is one of them”
Keywords: figurines, ephemeral nature, ice sculpture.
Keyword Location: In paragraph A, lines 5-7
Explanation: In paragraph A lines 5-7 say, “however, some branches of the art also specialize in creating figurines of a more ephemeral nature, ice sculpture, for example.” NOTE: Ephemeral means ‘short lived’


Question 18

Answer: Southern
Supporting Answer: “both eastern and southern Africa are art depicting mixtures of human and animal features.”
Keywords: human & animal features.
Keyword Location: In paragraph D, lines 5-7
Explanation: In paragraph D lines 5-7 say, “In both Eastern and Southern Africa, typically, art depicts a mixture of human and animal features.”


Question 19

Answer: Clay
Supporting Answer: “the artwork in southern Africa is made up of clay.”
Keywords: hybrid representation.
Keyword Location: In paragraph D, lines 11-13
Explanation: In paragraph D lines 11-13 say, “In Southern Africa, the human/animal hybrid representations are fashioned from clay.”


Question 20

Answer: Religious rituals
Supporting Answer: “In the West African region, the subcultures are made due to regional rituals.”
Keywords: Figurines, elongated bodies.
Keyword Location: In paragraph C, lines 3-7
Explanation: In paragraph C lines 3-7 say, “Figurines from the West African region are sculpted in two distinctly different forms. The first is characterized by angular forms and features with elongated bodies, such sculptures being traditionally used in religious rituals.”


Question 21

Answer: Wood
Supporting Answer: “The traditional wood statues of Mande are made up of Wood.”
Keywords: traditional wood statues of Mande. ieltsxpress
Keyword Location: In paragraph C, lines 7-9
Explanation: In paragraph C lines 7-9 say, “Conversely, the traditional wood statues of the Mande speaking culture possess cylindrical arms and legs with broad, flat surfaces.”


Question 22

Answer: Materials
Supporting Answer: “The materials are used in such a form that it can help anyone to identify the unique style of Central African Sculpture.”
Keywords: Central Africa sculpture.
Keyword Location: In paragraph D, lines 1-2
Explanation: In paragraph D lines 1-2 say, “Central African sculpture may be a little more difficult to identify for the novice observer as a wider variety of materials may be used.”


Question 23

Answer: Pharaonic Africa
Supporting Answer: “some expertise says based on some proof that Pharaonic Africa civilization sheds doubt on the theory that African art dates back to the Nok Civilization.”
Keywords: Nok Civilisation of Nigeria, Pharaonic Africa.
Keyword Location: In paragraph B, lines 3-6
Explanation: In paragraph B lines 3-6 says, “Whilst some experts hold that the art of sculpture in the continent dates back to the Nok Civilization of Nigeria in 500 BC, this is disputed due to evidence of the art’s existence in Pharaonic Africa.”


Question 24

Answer: Metal
Supporting Answer:“Generally, at that time Metal material was introduced in the Eastern region of West Africa. They are used for American sculpture and considered to be best.”
Keywords: Metal sculptures, superior art form.
Keyword Location: In paragraph C, lines 9-11
Explanation: In paragraph C line 9-11 says, “Metal sculptures which hail from the eastern regions of West Africa, are heralded by many as amongst the most superior art forms ever crafted.”


Question 25

Answer: Burial
Supporting Answer: “the art forms the prior region is usually created in the form of a pole carved in human shape and topped with human and animal. They have a strong connection with dead, burial & spiritual world”
Keywords: pole carved in human shape, burial, spiritual world.
Keyword Location: In paragraph A, lines 5-10
Explanation: In paragraph D lines 5-10 say, “In both Eastern and Southern Africa, typically, art depicts a mixture of human and animal features. Art from the former region is usually created in the form of a pole carved in human shape and topped with a human or animal image which has a strong connection with death, burial, and the spiritual world.”


Question 26

Answer: Abstract
Supporting Answer: “Due to African Influence, artworks tend to be more Abstract in nature which allows it to be more intellectually and emotionally stimulating. Artists like Picasso, Van Gogh, etc. have been influenced and inspired by African culture.”
Keywords: naturalistic portrayal, African art, Picasso, Van Gogh, Gauguin.
Keyword Location: In paragraph F, lines 1-9
Explanation: In paragraph F lines 1-9 say, “Throughout the African continent, artworks tend to be more abstract than intending to present a realistic and naturalistic portrayal of the subject in question. Artists such as Picasso, Van Gogh, and Gauguin are said to have been influenced and inspired by African art. Its ability to stimulate emotional reaction and imagination generated a great deal of interest from western artists at the beginning of the 20th century. As a result, new European works began to emerge which were of a more abstract nature than previously conceived.”


Question 27

Answer: the human form
Supporting Answer: “Moore is best known for the abstract bronze sculpture of the human form and many more things.”
Keywords: Yorkshire, Henry Spencer Moore, bronze sculpture.
Keyword Location : In paragraph G, lines 3-7
Explanation: In paragraph G lines 3-7 say, “Henry Spencer Moore…is best known for his abstract bronze sculptures of the human form.


Genealogy IELTS Reading Answers with Explanation


Question: 28

Answer: iii- Diversity of Application
Supporting Sentences: “Originally, prior to developing a more mainstream following, the practice of genealogy focused on establishing the ancestral links of rulers and noblemen often with the purpose of disputing or confirming the legitimacy of inherited rights to wealth or position”
“Where and when previous generations of families lived”
“details of their lifestyle and motivations, interpreting the effects of law, political restrictions, immigration and the social conditions on an individual’s or family’s behaviour at the given time.”
“location of living relatives and consequently family reunions”
Keywords: Ancestral link, previous generation lived, lifestyle and motivation, social condition, location, family reunion
Keyword Location: Paragraph B, Lines 1-3
Explanation: This paragraph explains how earlier, genealogy was a tool for establishing ancestral links for right to legitimacy and wealth. This query has broadened and now also includes questions of where the past generations live, how they lived, what the society of the time was like etc. There is also the added benefit of reuniting family members dispersed due to adoption or war.


Question: 29

Answer: viii- Changing Viewpoints
Supporting Sentences: “Genealogy research has led to a shift in attitudes towards convict heritage amongst contemporary Australian society”
Keywords: shift in attitude, not criminals, circumstances
Keyword Location: Paragraph D Lines 1-2
Explanation: Initially, it was believed by contemporary Australians that their ancestors were dangerous criminals and that was why they were shipped to Australia. However, it later came to light that this was not the case and that the crimes were in fact petty, like stealing clothes, which were given the death sentence but later changed to deportation. Moreover, if their ancestors were part of the First Fleet, it meant they had family connections that saved their heads.


Question: 30

Answer: ix- Significant Roles
Supporting Sentences: “Genealogists now attribute the successful early development of Australia to such ex-convicts who decided to contribute fully to society once their sentence had been served”
Keywords: early development, contribute, developing, powerful positions, design, build
Keyword Location: Paragraph E, Lines 3-5
Explanation: Here, the contributions of early settlers who were ex-convicts in Britain are given. Good behaviour resulted in rewards and some of the former prisoners pioneered the growth of early Australian society in the form of architects and mayors. ieltsxpress


Question: 31

Answer: vi- Useful Sources
Supporting Sentences: “major genealogical databases, the International Genealogical Index and the Ancestral File, which contain records of hundreds of million individuals who lived between 1500 and 1900 in the United States, Canada and Europe”
“Resources available to genealogy enthusiasts include the Salt Lake City based Family History Library and more than 4000 branches where microfilms and microfiches can be rented for research and the newer Family Search internet site which provides open access to numerous databases and research sources”
Keywords: genealogical database,Ancestral File, International genealogical index, records, Family History Library, Family Search internet site
Keyword Location: Paragraph F, Lines 1-3
Explanation: This paragraph articulates on different sources that hold genealogical records such as Ancestral File, International genealogical Index and Family search site


Question: 32

Answer: ii- Assessing Validity
Supporting Sentences: “Experts advise that reliability of sources used for genealogical research should be evaluated in light of four factors which may influence their accuracy, these being the knowledge of the informant, the bias and mental state of the informant, the passage of time and potential for compilation error”
Keywords: reliability, accuracy, knowledge, bias, time, compilation error ieltsxpress
Keyword Location: Paragraph G, Line 1
Explanation: A source can be deemed reliable or not owing to a number of factors such as who presents the information, their bias, time, and probability of there being error.


Question: 33 Early applications of genealogy focused on behaviour, movement and settlement of populations.

Answer: False
Supporting Sentences: “Originally, prior to developing a more mainstream following, the practice of genealogy focused on establishing the ancestral links of rulers and noblemen often with the purpose of disputing or confirming the legitimacy of inherited rights to wealth or position”
Keywords: Prior, ancestral link, confirming legitimacy
Keyword Location: Paragraph B, Line 1
Explanation: It is stated that the earlier applications of genealogy dealt with confirming legitimacy so as to settle disputes around money and position.


Question: 34 The punishment of deportation was reserved for those who posed a serious threat to British society.

Answer: False
Supporting Sentences: “family members have been able to establish that their ancestors were, in fact, not hardened and dangerous criminals, but had, in most cases, been harshly punished for minor crimes inspired by desperation and dire economic circumstances”
Keywords: harshly punished, minor crimes, desperation, economic circumstance
Keyword Location: Paragraph D, Line 1
Explanation: Being deported to Australia did not mean that they were dangerous criminals who committed heinous crimes, rather petty crimes such as theft also resulted in being shipped off to Australia.


Question: 35 Some ex-convicts chose to stay in Australia due to the opportunities it presented.

Answer: Not Given
Supporting Sentences: “Although many of the deported convicts were forbidden to return to Britain, others such as Dawson, were, in theory, expelled for a given term. In reality, however, the costs of attempting to return to the mother country were well beyond the means of the majority”
Keywords: forbidden, expelled, in reality, cost, beyond the means
Keyword Location: Paragraph E, Line 1-2
Explanation: It is explained that the majority of the convicts stayed behind due to having no means of return. This however does not explain if they were given new opportunities due to which they preferred staying over leaving.


Question: 36 Overwhelming interest in obtaining genealogical information has led to technological difficulties.

Answer: True
Supporting Sentences: “The global level of interest in and demand for such information has proven so intense, that traffic load on release of sources such as Family Search and the British Census for 1901 led to temporary collapse of the host servers.”
Keywords: interest, demand, intense, traffic load, collapse, host servers
Keyword Location: Paragraph F, Line 4
Explanation: The interest in genealogical information is high on a global scale which leads to high traffic on such websites which eventually leads to the crash of host servers.


Question: 37 Why has recreational genealogy become more popular?

Answer: D- Because it no longer requires so much effort.
Supporting Sentences: “The introduction of the Internet has, in many ways, spurred interest levels since historical information has been made far more accessible than previously”
Keywords: more accessible ieltsxpress
Keyword Location: Paragraph A, Line 2
Explanation: The internet has increased the accessibility to information making it effortless and easier for users to look into their ancestry.


Question: 38 Whose original sentence for breaking the law was reduced?

Answer: B- Margaret Dawson
Supporting Sentences: “Convicts Margaret Dawson and Elizabeth Thakery were amongst the first European women to ever set foot on Australian soil. Details about the former, whose initial death sentence passed for stealing clothes from her employer was commuted to deportation”
Keywords: initial death sentence, commuted to deportation
Keyword Location: Paragraph D, Line 3-4
Explanation: Margaret Dawson was at first given the death sentence for stealing clothes. This was changed to deportation to Australia.


Question: 39 What is fundamental to genealogical research?

Answer: C- Pooling of information
Supporting Sentences: “Such data sharing practices are central and crucial to genealogical research and the internet has proven to be a major tool in facilitating ease of transfer of information in formats suitable for use in forums and via email”
Keywords: data sharing, crucial, major tool
Keyword Location: Paragraph F, Line 3
Explanation: Pooling or collection of information requires sharing. And sharing is a decisive part of genealogical research as it makes flow of information easier.


Question: 40 Why does census information need to be approached with caution?

Answer: A-Because it cannot easily be attributed to a particular individual
Supporting Sentences: “For example, a census record alone is considered unreliable as no named source for the information is likely to be found”
Keywords: unreliable, no name source
Keyword Location: Paragraph G, Line 3
Explanation: A census report cannot be traced back to a single individual, hence it is not wholly reliable source of information.

Also Check: IELTS Academic Reading Test 13 History of Woodlands

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