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Practice IELTS Academic Reading Test 12 ants could teach ants wealth in a cold climate ielts reading

IELTS Academic Reading Test 12 Ants Could Teach Ants

IELTS Academic Reading Test 12 with Answers | Ants Could Teach Ants | Wealth in a Cold Climate | Compliance or Noncompliance for children

Reading Passage 1

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.

Ants Could Teach Ants

The ants are tiny and usually nest between rocks on the south coast of England. Transformed into research subjects at the University of Bristol, they raced along with a tabletop foraging for food – and then, remarkably, returned to guide others. Time and again, followers trailed behind leaders, darting this way and that along the route, presumably to memorise landmarks. Once a follower got its bearings, it tapped the leader with its antennae, prompting the lesson to proceed to the next step. The ants were only looking for food, but the researchers said the careful way the leaders led followers 一 thereby turning them into leaders in their own right -marked the Temnothorax albipennis ant as the very first example of a non-human animal exhibiting teaching behaviour.

B “Tandem running is an example of teaching, to our knowledge the first in a non-human animal, that involves bidirectional feedback between teacher and pupil,” remarks Nigel Franks, professor of animal behaviour and ecology, whose paper on the ant educators was published last week in the journal Nature.

No sooner was the paper published, of course, than another educator questioned it. Marc Hauser, a psychologist and biologist and one of the scientists who came up with the definition of teaching, said it was unclear whether the ants had learned a new skill or merely acquired new information.

Later, Franks took a further study and found that there were even races between leaders. With the guidance of leaders, ants could find food faster. But the help comes at a cost for the leader, who normally would have reached the food about four times faster if not hampered by a follower. This means the hypothesis that the leaders deliberately slowed down in order to pass the skills on to the followers seems potentially valid. His ideas were advocated by the students who carried out the video project with him.

Opposing views still arose, however. Hauser noted that mere communication of information is commonplace in the animal world. Consider a species, for example, that uses alarm calls to warn fellow members about the presence. Sounding the alarm can be costly, because the animal may draw the attention of the predator to itself. But it allows others to flee to safety. “Would you call this teaching? “wrote Hauser. “The caller incurs a cost. The naive animals gain a benefit and new knowledge that better enables them to learn about the predator’s location than if the caller had not called. This happens throughout the animal kingdom, but we don’t call it teaching, even though it is clearly a transfer of information.”

F Tim Caro, a zoologist, presented two cases of animal communication. He found that cheetah mothers that take their cubs along on hunts gradually allow their cubs to do more of the hunting —going, for example, from killing a gazelle and allowing young cubs to eat merely tripping the gazelle and letting the cubs finish it off. At one level, such behaviour might be called teaching — except the mother was not really teaching the cubs to hunt but merely facilitating various stages of learning. In another instance, birds watching other birds using a stick to locate food such as insects and so on, are observed to do the same thing themselves while finding food later.

G Psychologists study animal behaviour in part to understand the evolutionary roots of human behaviour, Hauser said. The challenge in understanding whether other animals truly teach one another, he added, is that human teaching involves a “theory of mind” teachers are aware that students don’t know something. He questioned whether Franks’ leader ants really knew that the follower ants were ignorant. Could they simply have been following an instinctive rule to proceed when the followers tapped them on the legs or abdomen? And did leaders that led the way to food 一 only to find that it had been removed by the experimenter  – incur the wrath of followers? That, Hauser said, would suggest that the follower ant actually knew the leader was more knowledgeable and not merely following an instinctive routine itself.

The controversy went on, and for a good reason. The occurrence of teaching in ants, if proven to be true, indicates that teaching can evolve in animals with tiny brains. It is probably the value of information in social animals that determines when teaching will evolve, rather than the constraints of brain size.

Bennett Galef Jr., a psychologist who studies animal behaviour and social learning at McMaster University in Canada, maintained that ants were unlikely to have a “theory of mind” 一 meaning that leaders and followers may well have been following instinctive routines that were not based on an understanding of what was happening in another ant’s brain. He warned that scientists may be barking up the wrong tree when they look not only for examples of humanlike behaviour among other animals but humanlike thinking that underlies such behaviour. Animals may behave in ways similar to humans without a similar cognitive system, he said, so the behaviour is not necessarily a good guide into how humans came to think the way they do.

Questions 1-5

Look at the following statements (Questions 1-5) and the list of people in the box below.
Match each statement with the correct person, A, B, C or D.
Write the correct letter, A, B,C or D, in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet

NB You may use any letter more than once.

1 Animals could use objects to locate food.
2 Ants show two-way, interactive teaching behaviours.
3 It is risky to say ants can teach other ants as human beings do,
Ant leadership makes finding food faster.
5 Communication between ants is not entirely teaching.

List of people

A     Nigel Granks
B     Marc Hauser
C     Tim Caro
D     Bennet Galef Jr

Questions 6-9

Choose FOUR letters, A-H.

Write your answers in boxes 6-9 on your answer sheet.

Which FOUR of the following behaviours of animals are mentioned in the passage?

touch each other with antenna
alert others when there is danger
escape from predators
protect the young
E hunt food for the young
fight with each other
use tools like twigs
feed on a variety of foods

Questions 10-13

Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 1?
In boxes 10-13 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE                      if the statement is true
FALSE                     if the statement is false
NOT GIVEN           if the information is not given in the passage

10 Ants,’ tandem running involves only one-way communication.
11 Franks’s theory got many supporters immediately after publicity.
12 Ants’ teaching behaviour is the same as that of human.
13 Cheetah share hunting gains to younger ones


Reading Passage 2

Wealth in a Cold Climate

Dr. William Masters was reading a book about mosquitoes when inspiration struck. “There was this anecdote about the great yellow fever epidemic that hit Philadelphia in 1793,” Masters recalls. “This epidemic decimated the city until the first frost came.” The inclement weather froze out the insects, allowing Philadelphia to recover

B If the weather could be the key to a city’s fortunes, Masters thought, then why not to the historical fortunes of nations? And could frost lie at the heart of one of the most enduring economic mysteries of all — why are almost all the wealthy, industrialised nations to be found at altitudes above 40 degrees? After two years of research, he thinks that he has found a piece of the puzzle. Masters, an agricultural economist from Purdue University in Indiana, and Margaret McMillan at Tufts University, Boston, show that annual frosts are among the factors that distinguish rich nations from poor ones. Their study is published this month in the Journal of Economic Growth. The pair speculates that cold snaps have two main benefits — they freeze pests that would otherwise destroy crops and also freeze organisms, such as mosquitoes, that carry disease. The result is agricultural abundance a big workforce

The academics took two sets of information. The first was average income for countries, the second climate data from the University of East Anglia. They found a curious tally between the sets. Countries having five or more frosty days a month are uniformly rich; those with fewer than five are impoverished. The authors speculate that the five-day figure is important; it could be the minimum time needed to kill pests in the soil. Masters says: “For example, Finland is a small country that is growing quickly, but Bolivia is a small country that isn’t growing at all. Perhaps climate has something to do with that.” In fact, limited frosts bring huge benefits to farmers. The chills kill insects or render them inactive; cold weather slows the break-up of plant and animal material in the soil, allowing it to become richer; and frosts ensure a build-up of moisture in the ground for spring, reducing dependence on seasonal rains. There are exceptions to the “cold equals rich” argument. There are well-heeled tropical countries such as Hong Kong and Singapore (both city-states, Masters notes), a result of their superior trading positions. Likewise, not all European countries axe moneyed — in the former communist colonies, the economic potential was crushed by politics.

D Masters stresses that climate will never be the overriding factor 一 the wealth of nations is too complicated to be attributable to just one factor. Climate, he feels, somehow combines with other factors — such as the presence of institutions, including governments, and access to trading routes — to determine whether a country will do well. Traditionally, Masters says, economists thought that institutions had the biggest effect on the economy because they brought order to a country in the form of, for example, laws and property rights. With order, so the thinking went, came affluence. “But there are some problems that even countries with institutions have not been able to get around,” he says. “My feeling is that, as countries get richer, they get better institutions. And the accumulation of wealth and improvement in governing institutions are both helped by a favourable environment, including climate.

E This does not mean, he insists, that tropical countries are beyond economic help and destined to remain penniless. Instead, richer countries should change how foreign aid is given. Instead of aid being geared towards improving governance, it should be spent on technology to improve agriculture and to combat disease. Masters cites one example: “There are regions in India that have been provided with irrigation — agricultural productivity has gone up and there has been an improvement in health.” Supplying vaccines against tropical diseases and developing crop varieties that can grow in the tropics would break the poverty cycle.

Other minds have applied themselves to the split between poor and rich nations, citing anthropological, climatic and zoological reasons for why temperate nations are the most affluent. In 350BC, Aristotle observed that “those who live in a cold climate . . . are full of spirit”. Jared Diamond, from the University of California at Los Angeles, pointed out in his book Guns, Germs and Steel that Eurasia is broadly aligned east-west, while Africa and the Americas are aligned north-south. So, in Europe, crops can spread quickly across latitudes because climates are similar. One of the first domesticated crops, einkorn wheat, spread quickly from the Middle East into Europe; it took twice as long for corn to spread from Mexico to what is now the eastern United States. This easy movement along similar latitudes in Eurasia would also have meant faster dissemination of other technologies such as the wheel and writing, Diamond speculates. The region also boasted domesticated livestock, which could provide meat, wool and motive power in the fields. Blessed with such natural advantages, Eurasia was bound to take off economically.

G John Gallup and Jeffrey Sachs, two US economists, have also pointed out striking correlations between the geographical location of countries and their wealth. They note that tropical countries between 23.45 degrees north and south of the equator are nearly all poor. In an article for the Harvard International Review, they concluded that “development surely seems to favour the temperate-zone economies, especially those in the northern hemisphere, and those that have managed to avoid both socialism and the ravages of war”. But Masters cautions against geographical determinism, the idea that tropical countries are beyond hope: “Human health and agriculture can be made better through scientific and technological research,” he says, “so we shouldn’t be writing off these countries. Take Singapore: without air conditioning, it wouldn’t be rich.”

Questions 14-20

The reading passage has seven paragraphs, A-G
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-G from the list below.
Write the correct number, i-x, in boxes 14-20 on your answer sheet.

List of Headings

i. The positive correlation between climate and wealth
ii. Other factors besides climate that influence wealth
iii. Inspiration from reading a book
iv. Other researchers’ results do not rule out exceptional cases
v. different attributes between Eurasia and Africa
vi. Low-temperature benefits people and crops
vii. The importance of the institution in traditional views.
viii. The spread of crops in Europe, Asia and other places
ix. The best way to use aid
x. confusions and exceptional

14 Paragraph A
15 Paragraph B
16 Paragraph C
17 Paragraph D
18 Paragraph E
19 Paragraph F
20 Paragraph G

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Questions 21-26

Summary

Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, using no more than two words from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 21-26 on your answer sheet.

Dr. William Master read a book saying that a (an) 21 ………………………….. which struck an American city of years ago was terminated by a frost. And academics found that there is a connection between climate and country’s wealth as in the rich but small country of 22……………………….; Yet besides excellent surroundings and climate, one country still need to improve both their 23…………………………….. to achieve long prosperity,

Thanks to resembling weather condition across latitude in the continent of 24………………….. ’crops such as 25 ………………….. is bound to spread faster than from South America to the North. Other researchers also noted that even though geographical factors are important, a tropical country such as 26………………………………. still became rich due to scientific advancement.


Reading Passage 3

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-14 which are based on Reading Passage below.

Compliance or Noncompliance for children

Many Scientists believe that socialization takes a long process, while compliance is the outset of it. Accordingly, compliance for the education of children is the priority. Motivationally distinct forms of child compliance, mutually positive affect, and maternal control, observed in 3 control contexts in 103 dyads of mothers and their 26-41-month-old children, were examined as correlates of internalization, assessed using observations of children while alone with prohibited temptations and maternal ratings. One form of compliance (committed compliance), when the child appeared committed wholeheartedly to the maternal agenda and eager to endorse and accept it, was emphasized. Mother-child mutually positive affect was both a predictor and a concomitant of committed compliance. Children who shared positive effect with their mothers showed a high level of committed compliance and were also more internalized. Differences and similarities between children’s compliance with requests and prohibitions (“Do〃 vs. “Don’t” demand contexts) were also explored. Maternal “Dos” appeared more challenging to toddlers than the “Don’ts.” Some individual coherence of behaviour was also found across both demand contexts. The implications of committed compliance for emerging internalized regulators of conduct are discussed.

A number of parents were not easy to be aware of the compliance, some even overlooked their children’s noncompliance. Despite good education, these children did not follow the words from their parents on several occasion ‘especially boys in certain ages. Fortunately, this rate was acceptable; some parents could be patient with the noncompliance. Someone held that noncompliance is probably not a wrong thing. In order to determine the effects of different parental disciplinary techniques on young children’s compliance and noncompliance, mothers were trained to observe emotional incidents involving their own toddler-aged children. Reports of disciplinary encounters were analyzed in terms of the types of discipline used (reasoning, verbal prohibition, physical coercion, love withdrawal, and combinations thereof) and children’s responses to that discipline (compliance/ non-compliance and avoidance). The relation between compliance/ noncompliance and type of misdeed (harm to persons, harm to property, and lapses of self-control) was also analyzed. Results indicated that love withdrawal combined with other techniques was most effective in securing children’s compliance and that its effectiveness was not a function of the type of technique with which it was combined. Avoidant responses and affective reunification with the parent were more likely to follow love withdrawal than any other technique. Physical coercion was somewhat less effective than love withdrawal, while reasoning and verbal prohibition were not at all effective except when both were combined with physical coercion.

Noncompliant Children sometimes prefer to say no directly as they were younger, they are easy to deal with the relationship with contemporaries. when they are growing up. During the period that children are getting elder, who may learn to use more advanced approaches for their noncompliance. They are more skillful to negotiate or give reasons for refusal rather than show their opposite idea to parents directly/’ Said Henry Porter, a scholar working in the Psychology Institute of UK. He indicated that noncompliance means growth in some way, may have benefit for children. Many Experts held different viewpoints in recent years, they tried drilling compliance into children. His collaborator Wallace Friesen believed that Organizing a child’s daily activities so that they occur in the same order each day as much as possible. This first strategy for defiant children is ultimately the most important. Developing a routine helps a child to know what to expect and increases the chances that he or she will comply with things such as chores, homework, and hygiene requests. When undesirable activities occur in the same order at optimal times during the day, they become habits that are not questioned but done without thought.

Chances are that you have developed some type of routine for yourself in terms of showering, cleaning your house, or doing other types of work. You have an idea in your mind when you will do these things regularly and this helps you to know what to expect. In fact, you have probably already been using most of these compliance strategies for yourself without realizing it. For children, without setting these expectations daily by making them part of a routine, they can become very upset. Just like adults, children think about what they plan to do that day and expect to be able to do what they want. So, when you come along and ask them to do something they weren’t already planning to do that day, this can result in automatic refusals and other undesirable defiant behaviour. However, by using this compliance strategy with defiant children, these activities are done almost every day in the same general order and the child expects to already do them.

D Doctor Steven Walson addressed that organizing fun activities to occur after frequently refused activities. This strategy also works as a positive reinforcer when the child complies with your requests. By arranging your day so that things often refused to occur right before highly preferred activities, you can eliminate defiant behaviour and motivate your child’s behaviour of doing the undesirable activity. This is not to be presented in a way that the preferred activity is only allowed if a defiant child does the non-preferred activity. However, you can word your request in a way so that your child assumes that you have to do the non-preferred activity before moving on to the next preferred activity. For example, you do not want to say something such as, “If you clean your room we can play a game.” Instead of the word your request like this, “As soon as you are done cleaning your room we will be able to play that really fun game you wanted to play.”

E Psychologist Paul Edith insisted praise is the best way to make children comply with. This is probably a common term you are used to hearing by now. If you praise your child’s behaviour, he or she will be more likely to do that behaviour. So, it is essential to use praise when working with defiant children. It also provides your child with positive attention. However, it is important to know how to praise children in a way that encourages future automatic reinforcement for your child when doing a similar behaviour.

Questions 27-31

Choose the correct letter, A, BC or D.|
Write the correct letter in boxes 27-31 on your answer sheet,

27 The children, especially boys received good education may

A always comply with their parents, words.
be good at math
have a high score at school
disobey their parents’ order sometimes

28 to their children’s compliance and noncompliance, parents

A must be aware of the compliance
ask for help from their teachers
C some of them may ignore their noncompliance
D pretend not to see

29 According to Henry Porter noncompliance for children

A are entirely harmful
B may have positive effects
C needs medicine assistance
D should be treated by an expert doctor

30 When children are growing up. they

A always try to directly say no
B are more skillful to negotiate
C learn to cheat instead of noncompliance
D tend to keep silent

31 Which is the possible reaction the passage mentioned for elder children and younger ones if they don’t want to comply with the order

A elder children prefer to refuse directly
B elder ones refuse to answer
C younger children may reject directly
D younger ones may save any words

Questions 32-35
Look at the following people and a list of statements below.
Match each person with the correct statement.

Write the correct letter A-G in boxes 32-35 on your answer sheet.

32. Henry Porter
33. Wallace Friesen
34. Steven Walson
35. Paul Edith

List of Statements

A. children of all ages will indirectly show noncompliance
B. elder children tend to negotiate rather than show noncompliance
C. converse behaviour means noncompliance
D. organizing fun activities to occur after frequently refused activities
E. organizing child’s daily activities in the same order as much as possible.
F. use praise to make children compliant
G. take the children to school at an early age

Questions 36-40

Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage? In boxes 36-40 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE                      if the statement is true
FALSE                     if the statement is false
NOT GIVEN           if the information is not given in the passage

36 Socialization takes a long process, while compliance is the beginning of it.
37 Many parents were difficult to be aware of compliance or noncompliance.
38 Noncompliant Children are simple to deal with the relationship with the people of the same age when they are growing up.
39 Experts never tried drilling compliance into children.
40 Psychologist Paul Edith negated the importance that knowing how to praise children encouragingly.


IELTS Academic Reading Practice Test 12 Answers

Ants Could Teach Ants IELTS Reading Answers

1 C
2 A
3 D
4 A
5 B
6 A
7 B
8 E
3 G
10 NO
11 NOT GIVEN
12 NOT GIVEN
13 YES

Wealth in a Cold Climate IELTS Reading Answers

14 iii
15 vi
16 i
17 ii
18 ix
19 v
20 iv
21 ( yellow – fever) epidemic
22 Finland
23 Governing institutions
24 Europe
25 Einkorn Wheat
26 Singapore

Compliance or Noncompliance for children IELTS Reading Answers

27 D
28 C
29 B
30 B
31 C
32 B
33 E
34 D
35 F
36 NOT GIVEN
37 YES
38 YES
39 NO
40 NO


IELTS Academic Reading Practice Test 12 Answers Explanation

Ants Could Teach Ants IELTS Reading Answers Explanation

1. animals could use objects to locate food.
Answer: C
Supporting sentence: “In another instance, birds watching other birds using a stick to locate food such as insects and so on, are observed to do the same thing themselves while finding food later.”
Keyword: locate food
Keyword location: section F, 5th line
Explanation: Tim Caro presented cases depicting animal communication. The second case presented an object called a stick that the birds used to find insects and other foods.


2. animals could use objects to locate food.
Answer: C
“In another instance, birds watching other birds using a stick to locate food such as insects and so on, are observed to do the same thing themselves while finding food later.”
Keyword: locate food
Keyword location: section F, 5th line
Explanation: Tim Caro presented cases depicting animal communication. The second case presented an object called a stick that the birds used to find insects and other foods.


3. it is risky to say ants can teach other ants like human beings do.
Answer: D
Supporting sentence: “He warned that scientists may be barking up the wrong tree when they look not only for examples of humanlike behaviour among other animals but humanlike thinking that underlies such behaviour. Animals may behave in ways similar to humans without a similar cognitive system, he said, so the behaviour is not necessarily a good guide into how humans came to think the way they do.”
Keyword: humanlike behaviour, a similar cognitive system, barking up the wrong tree
Keyword location: Section I, 7th line
Explanation: Bennett Galef Jr stated that ants may be following routines that were not based on other ant’s thinking. Also, animals have human-like behaviour, but the cognitive system differs, thus, the theory of human-like instructions by ants is risky to say.


4. ant leadership makes finding food faster.
Answer: A
Supporting sentence: “With the guidance of leaders, ants could find food faster. But the help comes at a cost for the leader, who normally would have reached the food about four times faster if not hampered by a follower.”
Keyword: find food faster, the guidance of leaders
Keyword location: Section D, 2nd line
Explanation: Nigel Franks improved his study and found that there are races between the leaders. Ants can find food faster when they are guided.


5. communication between ants is not entirely teaching.
Answer: B
Supporting sentence: “The naive animals gain a benefit and new knowledge that better enables them to learn about the predator’s location than if the caller had not called. This happens throughout the animal kingdom, but we don’t call it teaching, even though it is a transfer of information.”
Keyword: transfer of information, don’t, teaching
Keyword location: section E, last line
Explanation: Marc Hauser stated that communication between animals is common. Communication to find the location of the predator is a form of information transfer and cannot be counted as entirely teaching.


6. touch each other with antenna
Answer: A
Supporting sentence: “Once a follower got its bearings, it tapped the leader with its antennae, prompting the lesson to proceed to the next step.”
Keywords: antenna, tap
Keyword location: section A, 4th line
Explanation: the ants touch their antenna with their leaders or each other. So A is justified.


7. alert others when there is danger
Answer: B
Supporting sentence: “Consider a species, for example, that uses alarm calls to warn fellow members about the presence. Sounding the alarm can be costly, because the animal may draw the attention of the predator to itself.”
Keywords: warn, alarm, predator
Keyword location: section E, 2nd line
Explanation: The passage highlights the keywords warn, predator. The fellow members warn each other of the approaching dangers. Thus, the information is available in the passage.


8. hunt food for the young
Answer: E
Supporting sentence: “He found that cheetah mothers that take their cubs along on hunts gradually allow their cubs to do more of the hunting —going, for example, from killing a gazelle and allowing young cubs to eat merely tripping the gazelle and letting the cubs finish it off.”
Keywords: hunt, cubs
Keyword location: section F, 2nd line
Explanation: The passage highlights that cheetah mothers take the cubs for hunting and let them, just trip the victim. The mothers hunt for food for their cubs and let them share the prey amongst themselves.


9. use tools like twigs
Answer: G
Supporting sentences: “In another instance, birds watching other birds using a stick to locate food such as insects and so on, are observed to do the same thing themselves while finding food later.”
Keywords: stick
Keyword location: section F, 5th line
Explanation: the keyword stick is used in the passage which means twig. It is used to locate food, so it is a tool that is being used. Hence, G is correct.


10 Ant’s tandem running involves only one-way communication.
Answer: C
Supporting sentence: “Tandem running is an example of teaching, to our knowledge the first in a non-human animal, that involves bidirectional feedback between teacher and pupil,” remarks Nigel Franks.
Keywords: bidirectional feedback
Keyword location: section B, 1st line.
Explanation: Nigel Franks explains that tandem running involves bidirectional feedback between teacher and pupil and not one-way communication, therefore it is false.


11 Franks’s theory got many supporters immediately after publicity.
Answer: Not Given
Supporting sentence: “No sooner was the paper published, of course, than another educator questioned it.”
“Later, Franks took a further study and found that there were even races between leaders.”
Keywords: no sooner, questioned, later
Keyword location: section C, Section D, 1st line
Explanation: Information regarding the supporters after publicity is not provided in the passage. The words immediately and publicity are not mentioned in the passage. Hence, not given.


12. Ant’s teaching behaviour is the same as that of humans.
Answer: Not Given
Explanation: Information regarding ants teaching behaviour being the same as that of humans is not provided in the passage. The information talks about the animals’ behaviour in general and not the teaching behaviour. Hence, not given.


13. Cheetah shares hunting gains with younger ones.
Answer: Yes
Supporting sentence: “Cheetah mothers that take their cubs along on hunts gradually allow their cubs to do more of the hunting – going, for example, from killing a gazelle and allowing young cubs to eat to merely tripping the gazelle and letting the cubs finish it off”
Keywords: Cheetah, allowing, young cubs, letting
Keyword location: Section F, 1st line
Explanation: Tim Caro explains that Cheetah allows the young cubs to kill a gazelle and allowing the cubs to eat it. This is a form of sharing, so the answer is yes.


Wealth in a Cold Climate IELTS Reading Answers Explanation

14. Section A
Answer: iii
Supporting sentence: Dr.William Masters was reading a book about mosquitoes when inspiration struck.
Keyword: Inspiration, Reading, Book
Keyword Location: Section A 1st line
Explanation: Section A 1st line has mentioned that Dr.William Masters was reading a book for inspiration. So the appropriate heading from the above lists would be the 3rd “Inspiration to read a book”.


15. Section B
Answer: vi
Supporting sentence: The pair speculate that cold snaps have two main benefits-they freeze pests that would otherwise destroy crops and also freeze organisms such as mosquitoes that carry disease. The result is agricultural abundance and a big workforce.
Keywords: Freeze, destroy crops, Benefits.
Keyword Location: Last line of Section B
Explanation: Section B’s last line has stated that cold snaps are beneficial in two ways: that the pests will be destroyed and mosquitoes are frozen. By this sentence, we can understand that the crops that are the plants are benefited. Because crops are prevented, people would also be benefited.


16. Section C
Answer: i
Supporting sentence: Countries having five or more frosty days a month are uniformly rich and those with fewer than five are impoverished.
Keyword: Frosty days, Rich
Keyword Location: Section C 2nd sentence
Explanation: The sentence has mentioned that frosty days which are climate countries are rich which is wealth. Therefore the Heading that would be appropriate is the 1st one


17. Section D
Answer: ii
Supporting sentence: The wealth of nations is too complicated to be attributed to just one factor, climate, he feels somehow combined with other factors such as the presence of institutions including governments and access to trading routes to determine whether a country will do well.
Keywords: Factor, Wealth
Keyword Location: Section D 1st sentence
Explanation: The sentence says that many factors affect wealth other than climate.


18. Section E
Answer: ix
Supporting sentence: Instead of aid being geared towards improving governance, it should be spent on technology to improve agriculture and to combat disease.
Keyword: Aid, improve
Keyword Location: Section E 2nd sentence
Explanation: The sentence explains how aid must be geared to the best way


19. Section F
Answer: v
Supporting sentence: Guns, germs and steel that Eurasia is broadly aligned east-west while Africa and the Americas are aligned with North-south.
Keywords: Eurasia, Africa
Keyword Location: Section F 4th Sentence
Explanation: The sentence explains Guns, Germs, and Steel (Several attributes) that Eurasia is aligned with Africa and the Americas.


20. Section G
Answer: iv
Supporting sentence: But Masters cautions against geographical determinism the idea that tropical countries are beyond hope.
Keyword: beyond hope
Keyword Location: Section G 3rd from the last
Explanation: The results from the Masters (researchers) results are beyond hope.


21.
Answer: Yellow river
Supporting sentence: Dr. William Masters was reading a book about mosquitoes when inspiration struck. There was this anecdote about the great Yellow river epidemic that hit Philadelphia in 1793
Keyword: Book, Dr.William Masters
Keyword Location: Section A second line
Explanation: from the above sentence we can understand that Dr. William masters was reading a book called Yellow River.


22.
Answer: Finland
Supporting sentence: Finland is a small country that is growing quickly.
Keyword: Small country
Keyword Location: Section C 3rd sentence
Explanation: From the above sentences we can understand that Finland is a small country that is growing quickly (wealth)


23.
Answer: Governing institutions
Supporting sentence: The accumulation of wealth and improvement in governing institutions are both helped by a favourable environment including climate.
Keywords: Climate, wealth
Keyword Location: Section D Last line
Explanation: The sentence has mentioned that improving governing institutions will help wealth and also climate. Therefore to improve a country it needs to improve the governing institutions.


24.
Answer: Europe
Supporting sentence: In Europe, crops can spread quickly across latitudes because climates are similar.
Keyword: Europe, Latitudes
Keyword Location: Section F 5th line
Explanation: Europe which is a continent can spread quickly across latitudes.


25.
Answer: Einkorn wheat
Supporting sentence: One of the first domesticated crops einkorn wheat spread quickly from the middle east into Europe; it took twice as long as corn to spread from Mexico to what is now the eastern United States.
Keywords: Europe, America
Keyword Location: Section F 6th line
Explanation: Einkorn wheat can spread very faster than from South America (United States) to North America (Mexico)


26.
Answer: Singapore
Supporting sentence: “Human health and agriculture can be made better through scientific and technological research”, he says “so we shouldn’t be writing about these countries. Take Singapore: without air conditioning, it wouldn’t be rich”.
Keywords: Scientific, Country
Keyword Location: Section G last sentence
Explanation: Singapore became rich due to scientific advancement.


Compliance or Noncompliance for children IELTS Reading Answers Explanation

27. The children, especially boys who received good education may
Answer: D
Supporting Sentence: Several parents were not easy to be aware of the compliance, some even overlooked their children’s noncompliance. Despite good education, these children did not follow the words from their parents on several occasions, especially boys of certain ages. Fortunately, this rate was acceptable, some parents could be patient with the noncompliance.
Keyword: especially boys in certain ages
Keyword Location: Section B, 1st line
Explanation: The selected answer is correct as justified by the supporting sentence. It has been said that many of the parents overlooked their children’s noncompliance. They were not even aware of the compliance. The children, despite having good academic background didn’t abide by the words of their parents on many occasions, and this was mostly common among boys of certain ages.


28. Face to their children’s compliance and noncompliance, parents
Answer: C
Supporting Sentence: Several parents were not easy to be aware of the compliance, some even overlooked their children’s noncompliance.
To determine the effects of different parental disciplinary techniques on young children’s compliance and noncompliance, mothers were trained to observe emotional incidents involving their own toddler-aged children. Reports of disciplinary encounters were analyzed in terms of the types of discipline used (reasoning, verbal prohibition, physical coercion, love withdrawal, and combinations thereof) and children’s responses to that discipline (compliance/ non-compliance and avoidance). The relation between compliance/ noncompliance and type of misdeed (harm to persons, harm to property, and lapses of self-control) was also analyzed.
Keyword: some even overlooked their children’s noncompliance
Keyword Location: Section B, in the beginning, and mid.
Explanation: The selected answer is correctly chosen as evident from the supporting sentence. The supporting sentence states that parents were trained to observe their children’s emotional behaviour from a very young age for understanding compliance and noncompliance. The types of discipline were studied like reasoning, verbal prohibition, physical coercion, and more.

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29. According to Henry Porter, noncompliance for children
Answer: B
Supporting Sentence: “Noncompliant Children sometimes prefer to say it directly as they were younger, they are easy to deal with the relationship with contemporaries. When they are growing up. During the period that children are getting elder, they may learn to use more advanced approaches for their noncompliance. They are more skillful to negotiate or give reasons for refusal rather than show their opposite idea to parents directly.” Said Henry Porter, a scholar working in the Psychology Institute of UK. He indicated that noncompliance means growth in some way, may have benefit for children.
Keyword: He indicated that noncompliance means growth in some way, may have benefits for children.
Keyword Location: Section C, beginning
Explanation: According to Henry Porter, noncompliance for children may have positive effects. Those children prefer talking directly to contemporaries since they are younger. During the time of growing up, those children will learn more ways of adopting approaches for their noncompliance. They will be able to negotiate or provide reasons rather than bluntly showing the ‘opposite idea to parents’.


30. When children are growing up, they
Answer: B
Supporting Sentence: “Noncompliant Children sometimes prefer to say it directly as they were younger, they are easy to deal with the relationship with contemporaries. When they are growing up. During the period that children are getting older, they may learn to use more advanced approaches for their noncompliance. They are more skillful to negotiate or give reasons for refusal rather than show their opposite idea to parents directly.” Said Henry Porter, a scholar working in the Psychology Institute of UK.
Keyword: They are more skillful to negotiate or give reasons for refusal rather than show their opposite idea to parents directly.
Keyword Location: Section C, beginning
Explanation: When children are growing up, they are more skillful to negotiate. As explained by Henry Porter, noncompliant children learn to negotiate or provide reasons to their parents rather than showing them the idea directly. They have inbuilt skills to negotiate about their ideas.


31. Which is the possible reaction the passage mentioned for elder children and younger ones if they don’t want to comply with the order
Answer: C
Supporting Sentence: This is probably a common term you are used to hearing by now. If you praise your child’s behavior, he or she will be more likely to do that behavior. So, it is essential to use praise when working with defiant children. It also provides your child with positive attention.
Keyword: If you praise your child’s behavior, he or she will be more likely to do that behavior. So, it is essential to use praise when working with defiant children. It also provides your child with positive attention.
Keyword Location: Section E
Explanation: Psychologist Paul Edith has explained how praising a child will make them comply. This is a very common term that most of the people have heard by now. He has suggested how praising a defiant child will make them follow that activity. Additionally, the child gets positive attention. Although the psychologist has stated the approach to praise children should in a way that it ‘encourages future automatic reinforcement for your child.’ Which is the possible reaction the passage mentioned for elder children and younger ones if they don’t want to comply with the order younger children may reject directly.


32. Answer: B
Supporting Sentence: “Noncompliant Children sometimes prefer to say to directly as they were younger, they are easy to deal with the relationship with contemporaries. When they are growing up. During the period that children are getting elder, they may learn to use more advanced approaches for their noncompliance. They are more skillful to negotiate or give reasons for refusal rather than show their opposite idea to parents directly.” Said Henry Porter, a scholar working in the Psychology Institute of UK. He indicated that noncompliance means growth in some way, may have benefit for children.
Keyword: During the period that children are getting elder, they may learn to use more advanced approaches for their noncompliance. They are more skillful to negotiate or give reasons for refusal rather than show their opposite idea to parents directly.
Keyword Location: Section C, beginning
Explanation: The answer is correctly chosen as Henry Porter. It was Henry Porter who stated how elder children tend to negotiate rather than showing their noncompliance. He has stated how those children dealt with parents by negotiating on showing reasons rather than directly coming up with the topic


33. Answer: E
Supporting Sentence: His collaborator Wallace Friesen believed that Organizing a child’s daily activities so that they occur in the same order each day as much as possible. This first strategy for defiant children is ultimately the most important. Developing a routine helps a child to know what to expect and increases the chances that he or she will comply with things such as chores, homework, and hygiene requests. When undesirable activities occur in the same order at optimal times during the day, they become habits that are not questioned but done without thought.
Keyword: His collaborator Wallace Friesen believed that Organizing a child’s daily activities so that they occur in the same order each day as much as possible.
Keyword Location: Section C, 1st paragraph ending
Explanation: It was Wallace Friesen who has stated that organizing a child’s daily activities help them keep a track of their doings. This is a helpful approach for defiant children. A routine helps them know what to expect and raises the chance of them complying with it.


34. Answer: D
Supporting Sentence: Doctor Steven Walson addressed that organizing fun activities to occur after frequently refused activities. This strategy also works as a positive reinforcer when the child complies with your requests. By arranging your day so that things often refused to occur right before highly preferred activities, you can eliminate defiant behavior and motivate your child’s behavior of doing the undesirable activity.
Keyword: Doctor Steven Walson addressed that organizing fun activities to occur after frequently refused activities.
Keyword Location: Section D beginning
Explanation: It was doctor Steven Walson who stated about the organization of fun activities after ‘frequently refused activities’. This is a helpful strategy when a child complies with their parent’s request and acts as a ‘positive reinforcer’.


35. Answer: F
Supporting Sentence: Psychologist Paul Edith insisted praise is the best way to make children comply. This is probably a common term you are used to hearing by now. If you praise your child’s behavior, he or she will be more likely to do that behavior. So, it is essential to use praise when working with defiant children. It also provides your child with positive attention.
Keyword: Psychologist Paul Edith insisted praise is the best way to make children comply.
Keyword Location: Section E
Explanation: It is psychologist Paul Edith who has stated about how children can be best made compliant by prasings. This is quite a common term that most people have heard. Prasisings helps a child understand that they should follow it, and therefore they will repeat the activity.


36. Answer: TRUE
Supporting Sentence: Many Scientists believe that socialization takes a long process, while compliance is the outset of it. Accordingly, compliance with the education of children is the priority. Motivationally distinct forms of child compliance, mutually positive affect, and maternal control, observed in 3 control contexts in 103 dyads of mothers and their 26-41-month-old children, were examined as correlates of internalization, assessed using observations of children while alone with prohibited temptations and maternal ratings.
Keyword: Many Scientists believe that socialization takes a long process, while compliance is the outset of it.
Keyword Location: Section A, beginning
Explanation: It is believed by numerous scientists that ‘socialization takes a long process’ while compliance is the result of it. Compliance with children’s education needs to be a priority. Therefore it is rightly said that socialization takes a long process, while compliance is the beginning of it.


37. Answer: TRUE
Supporting Sentence: Several parents were not easy to be aware of the compliance, some even overlooked their children’s noncompliance. Despite good education, these children did not follow the words from their parents on several occasions, especially boys of certain ages. Fortunately, this rate was acceptable, some parents could be patient with the noncompliance. Someone held that noncompliance is probably not a wrong thing.
Keyword: Several parents were not easy to be aware of the compliance, some even overlooked their children’s noncompliance
Keyword Location: Section B, beginning
Explanation: There are many parents who are not familiar with the concept of compliance. There are also some who overlook their children’s noncompliance. In spite of receiving a good education, children don’t abide by their parent’s words on many occasions.


38. Answer: TRUE
Supporting Sentence: “Noncompliant Children sometimes prefer to say to directly as they were younger, they are easy to deal with the relationship with contemporaries. When they are growing up. During the period that children are getting elder, they may learn to use more advanced approaches for their noncompliance. They are more skillful to negotiate or give reasons for refusal rather than show their opposite idea to parents directly.” Said Henry Porter, a scholar working in the Psychology Institute of UK. He indicated that noncompliance means growth in some way, may have benefit for children.
Keyword: Noncompliant Children sometimes prefer to say to directly as they were younger, they are easy to deal with the relationship with contemporaries. When they are growing up.
Keyword Location: Section C, beginning
Explanation: Noncompliant Children are simple to deal with the relationship with people at the same age when they are growing up.


39. Answer: FALSE
Supporting Sentence: He indicated that noncompliance means growth in some way, may have benefits for children. Many Experts held different viewpoints in recent years, they tried drilling compliance into children. His collaborator Wallace Friesen believed that Organizing a child’s daily activities so that they occur in the same order each day as much as possible. This first strategy for defiant children is ultimately the most important.
Keyword: Many Experts held different viewpoints in recent years, they tried drilling compliance into children.
Keyword Location: Section C, Middle
Explanation: Experts never tried drilling compliance into children. The experts had different viewpoints regarding compliance, and they ‘tried drilling compliance into children’. Wallace Friesen believed the fact that organizing a defiant child’s everyday routine helps them maintain uniformity.


40. Answer: FALSE
Supporting Sentence: Psychologist Paul Edith insisted praise is the best way to make children comply. This is probably a common term you are used to hearing by now. If you praise your child’s behavior, he or she will be more likely to do that behavior. So, it is essential to use praise when working with defiant children. It also provides your child with positive attention.
Keyword: Psychologist Paul Edith insisted praise is the best way to make children comply.
Keyword Location: Section E, beginning
Explanation: Psychologist Paul Edith negated the importance of knowing how to praise children encouragingly.


Also Check: IELTS Academic Reading Practice Test 11 Eco Resort

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