Mimicking Mother Nature ielts reading academic ieltsxpress

Mimicking Mother Nature IELTS Reading Academic

Mimicking Mother Nature IELTS Reading Academic

READING PASSAGE – 3

Mimicking Mother Nature

Using the environment not as an exploitable resource, but as a source of inspiration

A. Researchers and designers around the globe endeavor to create new technologies that, by honoring the tenets of life, are both highly efficient and often environmentally friendly. And while biomimicry is not a new concept (Leonardo da Vinci looked to nature to design his flying machines, for example, and pharmaceutical companies have long been miming plant organisms in synthetic drugs), there is a greater need for products and manufacturing processes that use a minimum of energy, materials, and toxins.

What’s more, due to technological advancements and a newfound spirit of innovation among designers, there are now myriad ways to mimic Mother Nature’s best assets.

B. “We have a perfect storm happening right now,” says Jay Harman, an inventor and CEO of PAX Scientific, which designs fans, mixers, and pumps to achieve maximum efficiency by imitating the natural flow of fluids. “Shapes in nature are extremely simple once you understand them, but to understand what geometries are at play, and to adapt them, is a very complex process.

We only just recently have had the computer power and manufacturing capability to produce these types of shapes.” “If we could capture nature’s efficiencies across the board, we could decrease dependency on fuel by at least 50 percent,” Harman says. “What we’re finding already with the tools and methodology we have right now is that we can reduce energy consumption by between 30 and 40 percent.” ieltsxpress

C. It’s only recently that mainstream companies have begun to equate biomimicry with the bottom line. DaimlerChrysler, for example, introduced a prototype car modeled on a coral reef fish. Despite its boxy, cube-shaped body, which defies a long-held aerodynamic standard in automotive design (the raindrop shape), the streamlined boxfish proved to be aerodynamically ideal and the unique construction of its skin—numerous hexagonal, bony plates—a perfect recipe for designing a car of maximum strength with minimal weight.

D. Companies and communities are flocking to Janine Benyus, author of the landmark book Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature (Perennial, 2002) and cofounder of the Biomimicry Guild, which seats biologists at the table with researchers and designers at companies such as Nike, Interface carpets, Novell, and Procter & Gamble. Their objective is to marry industrial problems with natural solutions.

E. Benyus, who hopes companies will ultimately transcend mere product design to embrace nature on a more holistic level, breaks biomimicry into three tiers. On a basic (albeit complicated) level, industry will mimic nature’s precise and efficient shapes, structures, and geometries. The microstructure of the lotus leaf, for example, causes raindrops to bead and run off immediately, while self-cleaning and drying its surface—a discovery that the British paint company Sto has exploited in a line of building paints. The layered structure of a butterfly wing or a peacock plume, which creates iridescent color by refracting light, is being mimicked by cosmetics giant L’Oreal in a soon-to-be-released line of eye shadow, lipstick, and nail varnish.

F. The next level of biomimicry involves imitating natural processes and biochemical “recipes”: Engineers and scientists are now looking at the nasal glands of seabirds to solve the problem of desalination; the abalone’s ability to self-assemble its incredibly durable shell in water, using local ingredients, has inspired an alternative to the conventional, and often toxic, “heat, beat, and treat” manufacturing method.

How other organisms deal with harmful bacteria can also be instructive: Researchers for the Australian company Biosignal, for instance, observed a seaweed that lives in an environment teeming with microbes to figure out how it kept free of the same sorts of bacterial colonies, called biofilms, that cause plaque on your teeth and clog up your bathroom drain. They determined that the seaweed uses natural chemicals, called furanones, that jam the cell-to-cell signaling systems that allow bacteria to communicate and gather.

G. Ultimately, the most sophisticated application of biomimicry, according to Benyus, is when a company starts seeing itself as an organism in an economic ecosystem that must make thrifty use of limited resources and creates symbiotic relationships with other organisms.

A boardroom approach at this level begins with imagining any given company, or collection of industries, as a forest, prairie, or coral reef, with its own “food web”(manufacturing inputs and outputs) and asking whether waste products from one manufacturing process can be used, or perhaps sold, as an ingredient for another industrial activity. For instance, Geoffrey Coates, a chemist at Cornell, has developed a biodegradable plastic synthesized from carbon dioxide and limonene (a major component in the oil extracted from citrus rind) and is working with a cement factory to trap their waste CO2 and use it as an ingredient.

H. Zero Emissions Research and Initiatives (ZERI), a global network of scientists, entrepreneurs, and educators, has initiated eco-industrial projects that attempt to find ways to reuse all wastes as raw materials for other processes. Storm Brewing in Newfoundland, Canada—in one of a growing number of projects around the world applying ZERI principles—is using spent grains, a by-product of the beer-making process, to make bread and grow mushrooms.

As industries continue to adopt nature’s models, entire manufacturing processes could operate locally, with local ingredients like the factories that use liquefied beach sand to make windshields. As more scientists and engineers begin to embrace biomimicry, natural organisms will come to be regarded as mentors, their processes deemed masterful.

Questions 27-32
Look at the following descriptions mentioned in Reading Passage 3.
Match the three kinds of levels (A-C) listed below the descriptions.
Write the appropriate letters, A-C, in boxes 27-32 on your answer sheet.

A.   First level: mimic nature’s precise and efficient shapes, structures, and geometries
B.   Second level: imitating natural processes and biochemical ‘recipes’
C.   Third level: creates symbiotic relationships with other like organisms

27.   Synthesized Plastic, developed together with cement factory, can recycle waste gas.
28.   Cosmetics companies produce a series of shine cosmetics colours
29.   People are inspired how to remove excess salt inspired by nature.
30.   Daimler Chrysler introduced a fish-shaped car.
31.   Marine plan company integrated itself into a part in economic ecosystem
32.   natural chemicals developed based on seaweed known to kill bacteria

Questions 33-40
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3?
In boxes 33-40 on your answer sheet, write

YES – if the statement is true
NO – if the statement is false
NOT GIVEN – if the information is not given in the passage

33.   Biomimicry is a totally new concept that has been unveiled recently.
34.   Leonardo da Vinci has been the first designer to mimic nature
35.   Scientists believe it involves more than mimicking the shape to capture the design in nature
36.   We can save the utilisation of energy by up to 40% if we take advantage of the current findings.
37.   Daimler Chrysler’s prototype car modelled on a coral reef fish is a best-seller.
38.   Some great companies and communities themselves are seeking solutions beyond their own industrial scope
39.   The British paint company Sto did not make the microstructure of the lotus leaf, applicable
40.   a Canadian beer Company increased the production by applying ZERI principles


Inspired by Mimicking Mother Nature IELTS Reading Answers

27. C

28. A

29. B

30. A

31. C

32. B

33. NO

34. NOT GIVEN

35. YES

36. YES

37. NOT GIVEN

38. YES

39. NO

40. NO

Also Check: Bristlecone Pine IELTS Reading Academic with Answers


Inspired by Mimicking Mother Nature IELTS Reading Answers Explanation

27. Synthesized plastic, developed together with cement factory, can recycle waste gas

Answer: C
Supporting Sentence: For instance, Geoffrey Coates, a chemist at Cornell, has developed a biodegradable plastic synthesized from carbon dioxide and limonene (a major component in the oil extracted from citrus rind). It is working with a cement factory to trap their waste CO2 and use it as an ingredient. ieltsxpress
Keyword: Synthesized, plastic, waste, cement factory
Keyword Location: Paragraph G, 3rd Line
Explanation: in the case of creation of symbiotic relationships with other organisms the supporting sentence quotes an example of synthesized plastic which used to trap waste CO2 (Gas). Its being done with a cement factory, this trapped CO2 will later be used as an ingredient which means recycling.


28. Cosmetics companies produce a series of shine cosmetic colours

Answer: A

Supporting Sentence: On a basic (albeit complicated) level, industry will mimic nature’s precise and efficient shapes, structures, and geometries. The layered structure of a butterfly wing or a peacock plume, which creates iridescent colour by refracting light. It is being mimicked by cosmetics giant L’Oréal in a soon-to-be-released line of eye shadow, lipstick, and nail varnish.
Keyword: Cosmetics, colours
Keyword Location: Paragraph E, 9th Line
Explanation: Its mentioned that cosmetics giants are trying to launch products mimicking butterfly wings or peacock plume. It designs which ae geometric patterns occurring in nature, so this is mimicry of nature’s geometry.


29. People are inspired how to remove excess salt inspired by nature

Answer: B

Supporting Sentence: The next level of biomimicry involves imitating natural processes and biochemical “recipes”: Engineers and scientists are now looking at the nasal glands of seabirds to solve the problem of desalination. The abalone’s ability to self-assemble it’s incredibly durable shell in water, using local ingredients.It has inspired an alternative to the conventional, and often toxic, “heat, beat, and treat” manufacturing method.
Keyword: Desalination
Keyword Location: Paragraph F, 3rd Line
Explanation: Desalination means removal of excess, or all salts and the passage mentions that under imitation of natural processes and biochemical recipes engineers and scientists. That are people, looking at nasal glands of seabirds to solve desalination problem. Which means nasal glands of seabirds must involve some natural process to get rid of excess salt or desalination. ieltsxpress


30. Daimler Chrysler introduced a fish shaped car

Answer: A

Supporting Sentence: Daimler Chrysler, for example, introduced a prototype car modelled on a coral reef fish.
Keyword: fish, car, Daimler Chrysler
Keyword Location: Paragraph C, 2nd &3rd line
Explanation: the passage mentions that Daimler Chrysler introduced a car that was modelled after a coral reef fish. It meant it was shaped like a coral reef fish and it’s a mimicry of nature’s precise shape, structure, and geometry.


31. Marine plan completely integrated itself into a part in economic ecosystem

Answer: C

Supporting Sentence: Ultimately, the most sophisticated application of biomimicry, according to Benyus, is when a company starts seeing itself as an organism in an economic ecosystem. That must make thrifty use of limited resources and creates symbiotic relationships with other organisms.
Keyword: economic ecosystem
Keyword Location: Paragraph G, 3rd line
Explanation: integration into an economic ecosystem would mean when a company starts seeing itself as a part of an economic ecosystem. This eventually culminates into creation of symbiotic relationships with other organisms. With respect to this integration the passage quotes the example of a coral reef. Which is equivalent to marine and hence marine plan company is integrated into economic ecosystem.


32. Natural chemicals developed based on seaweed known to kill bacteria

Answer: B

Supporting Sentence: How other organisms deal with harmful bacteria can also be instructive. Researchers for the Australian company Bio signal, for instance, observed a seaweed that lives in an environment teeming with microbes. To figure out how it kept free of the same sorts of bacterial colonies, called biofilms, that cause plaque on your teeth and clog up your bathroom drain. ieltsxpress
Keyword: seaweed, bacteria
Keyword Location: Paragraph F, 7th Line
Explanation: Australian company Bio signal has found out that Seaweeds are able to keep themselves free of bacteria due to a natural chemical furanones. This is important to use because the same bacteria cause plaque in our teeth and clog up bathroom drains. This example is quoted in the same paragraph which purports to discuss biomimicry that involves imitating natural processes and biochemical recipes.


33. Biomimicry is a totally new concept that has been unveiled recently

Answer: NO

Supporting Sentence: And while biomimicry is not a new concept (Leonardo da Vinci looked to nature to design his flying machines, for example, and pharmaceutical companies have long been miming plant organisms in synthetic drugs). There is a greater need for products and manufacturing processes that use a minimum of energy, materials, and toxins.
Keyword: new, concept, Biomimicry
Keyword Location: Paragraph A, 3rd & 4th line
Explanation: the passage directly mentions that Biomimicry isn’t a new concept is not recent because the passage suggests that Leonardo da Vinci used it and he was active during Renaissance.


34. Leonardo da Vinci has been the first designer to mimic nature

Answer: NOT GIVEN

Supporting Sentence: Leonardo da Vinci looked to nature to design his flying machines
Keyword: Leonardo
Keyword Location: Paragraph A, 2th line
Explanation: The line clearly says that Leonardo looked to nature to design his flying machines. It is nowhere provided in the passage that he mimicked nature.


35. Scientists believe it involves more than mimicking the shape to capture the design in nature

Answer: YES

Supporting Sentence: Shapes in nature are extremely simple once you understand them, but to understand what geometries are at play, and to adapt them, is a very complex process. ielts xpress
Keyword: shape, nature
Keyword Location: Paragraph B, 4th line
Explanation: the passage suggests that shapes are simple once understood but there is more because one needs to understand. The geometries are at play and how must they be adapted which is a complicated process but essential to capture the design in nature. ieltsxpress


36. We can save the utilisation of energy by up to 40% if we take advantage of current findings

Answer: YES

Supporting Sentence: “If we could capture nature’s efficiencies across the board, we could decrease dependency on fuel by at least 50 percent,” Harman says. “What we’re finding already with the tools and methodology we have right now is that we can reduce energy consumption by between 30 and 40 percent.”
Keyword: 40 percent, energy
Keyword Location: Paragraph B, 11th line
Explanation: current findings here means what we are finding with the tools and methodology we have right now and these results. The passage mentions, can help us reduce energy consumption/utilisation between 30-40 percent i.e., up to 40%.


37. Daimler Chrysler’s prototype car modelled on a coral reef fish is a best seller

Answer: NOT GIVEN

Explanation: the given statement states about the Daimler Chrysler’s prototype car model. But it is not stated in the passage that it was modelled on a coral reef fish.


38. Some great Companies and Communities themselves are seeking solutions beyond their own industrial scope.

Answer: YES

Supporting Sentence: Companies and communities are flocking to Janine Benyus, author of the landmark book Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature (Perennial, 2002). the cofounder of the Biomimicry Guild, which seats biologists at the table with researchers and designers at companies such as Nike, Interface carpets, Novell, and Procter & Gamble. ielts xp ress
Keyword: Companies and Communities, industrial, solutions
Keyword Location: Paragraph D, 1st & 5th Line
Explanation: the passage mentions that Companies and Communities are flocking to Janine Benyus, an authority on Biomimicry. Because their objective is found natural solutions for industrial problems and when the solutions are natural i.e., resting on biomimicry they are beyond industrial scope.


39. The British paint company Sto didn’t make the microstructure of the lotus leaf applicable

Answer: NO

Supporting Sentence: The microstructure of the lotus leaf, for example, causes raindrops to bead and run off immediately.While self-cleaning and drying its surface—a discovery that the British paint company Sto has exploited in a line of building paints.
Keyword: British paint Company Sto, microstructure, lotus leaf
Keyword Location: Paragraph E, 5th & 7th Line
Explanation: the passage specifically mentions that British paint company. Sto has exploited the microstructure of lotus leaf in a line of building paints. This is due to its property of causing raindrops to bead and run off while self-cleaning and drying its surface. So, Sto did make the microstructure of lotus leaf applicable in a line of building paints.


40. A Canadian beer company increased the production by applying ZERI principles

Answer: NO

Supporting Sentence: Storm Brewing in Newfoundland, Canada—in one of a growing number of projects around the world applying ZERI principles. It is using spent grains, a by-product of the beer-making process, to make bread and grow mushrooms. ieltsxpress
Keyword: Canada, beer-making, ZERI principles
Keyword Location: Paragraph H, 4th, 5th & 6th line
Explanation: its mentioned in the passage a company called Storm Brewing in Canada is applying ZERI principles. We can conclude it’s a beer making company because the passage mentions its using spent grains, a by-product of beer making process to make bread and grow mushroom. Which means by application of ZERI principles the company is able to use its by-products for bread and mushrooms and not increasing production.

Also Check: Making a Sound Investment Decision IELTS Reading Academic


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